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Imperialism in Africa. [Image source: http://www.bcpl.net/~sullivan/modules/imperial/images/imperialism.gif]. Imperialism. Latin word from the days of the Roman empire domination of a country’s political, economic, and social life by another country.

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Imperialism in Africa

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Imperialism in Africa

[Image source: http://www.bcpl.net/~sullivan/modules/imperial/images/imperialism.gif]


Imperialism

Latin word from the days of the Roman empire

domination of a country’s political, economic, and social life by another country


Causes for nineteenth-century European Imperialism

1. Economics

2. Nationalism

3. Balance-of-Power

4. White Man’s Burden


“Take up the White Man’s burden –Send forth the best ye breed –Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives’ need;To wait in heavy harnessOn fluttered folk and wild –Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.”

- Rudyard Kipling


[Image source: http://www.usd.edu/honors/HWB/1999/1999f/imperialism%20in%20africa.htm]

Initially, European holdings were limited to coastal areas near the mouths of rivers along the trade routes to Asia.


Missionaries such as David Livingstone often expanded European knowledge of the interior of Africa as a result of their travels.

[Image source: http://www.historicprints.com/hf-17.jpg]


The travels of these explorers allowed their respective nations to lay claim to those lands.

[Image source: http://homepage.ntlworld.com/maps-at-anona/davidlivingstone2.gif]


Chancellor Otto von Bismarck of Germany convened a conference to discuss the procedures for establishing colonies.

[Image source: http://www.museumofworldwarii.com/images/TourPictures/01_Wilhelm1_lge.jpg]


Berlin Conference

  • met in late-1884/early-1885

  • set the criteria for claiming colonies in Africa

  • initiated the “Scramble for Africa”

    - succeeded in deflecting European attention and aggression outward

    - resulted in the partitioning of Africa


  • Countries at the Conference of Berlin:

Belgium

Portugal

Great Britain

Italy

Germany

France

Spain


  • In Africa, only two countries allowed to remain independent:

Ethiopia

Liberia


King Charles X started France on the road to empire when he ordered his troops to invade Algeria in 1830.

[Image source: http://www.cpror.com/cprorGB/images/portchX.gif]


It took France ten years and 100,000 troops to conquer and occupy all of Algeria.


France went on to conquer Tunis in 1881 and secure special rights in Morocco in 1904.


Meanwhile, Great Britain was chewing up territory elsewhere in Africa.

[Image source: http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/empires/images/0083.jpg]


Britain acquiredSouthern Africafrom the Dutchduring the Napoleonic Wars, in an effort to maintain their trade routes to their empire in the Orient.

[Image source

http://www.hydro.com/library/images/about/hydro_worldwide/continent_countries/south-africa.gif]


British interests collided with an expanding Zulu Empire.

[Image source: Into The Fire by Mark Churms ]


After some initial defeats, the British managed to extend their hegemony over most of southern Africa.

[Image source: http://www.military-art.com/images/dhm_371_small.jpg]


In 1859, the French entrepreneur, Ferdinand de Lesseps, set up a company to build the Suez Canal.

[Image source: http://www.edinfor.pt/anc/f-lesseps.jpg]


[Image source: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/ralimage/30suez.jpg]


The Suez Canal provided a more direct route between Europe and East Asia.

[Image source: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch1en/conc1en/img/suez.gif]


Mediterranean Sea

Great Britain gained control of the canal in 1875 when Egypt sold its shares to pay off some debts.

[Image source

http://www.cc-pays-de-gex.fr/edres01/ecoles/ecsgplio/images/SuezNASA.gif]

Red

Sea


[Image source: http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/images/imperialism.gif


Concern over the security of the Suez Canal led Britain to take a greater interest in the affairs of Egypt.

[Image source:


Egypt became a protectorate of Great Britain in 1882 after the defeat of a nationalist revolt led by Ahmed Arabi.

[Image source: http://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/p-3959.jpg]


During the 1880s, an Islamic revival, led by a self-proclaimed deliverer known as the Mahdi, threatened British interests in Egypt.

[Image source: http://sudanhome.com/cards/cards/el_mahdi.jpg]


His force swept across the Sudan, re-instituting fundamentalist practices.

[Image source: http://ron.heavengames.com/gameinfo/nations/nubia/nubia.shtml]


Among the practices revived by the Mahdi was slavery.

[Image source: http://mirrormax.i8.com/images/children.gif]


The British ultimately defeated the forces of the Mahdi at the Battle of Omdurman.

http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/images/aa332391.jpg]


“Whatever happens, we have got,the Maxim gun, and they have not.”

[Image source: http://www.uh.edu/engines/maximgun.jpg]

- Hillaire Belloc


Many people, such as Britain’s competitors in colonization, the French, hoped that Britain would fail miserably in their efforts to establish a global empire.

[Image source: http://users.westconnect.com.au/%7Eianmac5/choc.jpg]


British and French interests collided at Fashoda in 1898, almost resulting in a shooting war between the two great imperialist powers.

[Image source: http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/empires/0055.html]


The British met opposition in places like West Africa, when they sought to conquer and subdue the Ashanti Empire of Queen Yaa Asantewaa.

[Image source: http://www.ashanti.com.au/Asantewa.jpg]


The French also ran into difficulties when they tried to defeat Samory Touré, the “Black Napoleon” of the Western Sudan, in the late-nineteenth century.

[Image source: http://www.playahata.com/pages/bhfigures28.html]


King Behanzin of Dahomey turned out to be a formidable foe for the French as well.

[Image source: http://shopping.corbis.com/search/details.asp?imageid=11017521]


Relative late-comers to the Scramble for Africa included:

  • Belgium

  • Italy

  • Germany


King Leopold II of Belgium aspired to be the ruler of a large empire like his fellow European monarchs.

[Image source: http://worldroots.clicktron.com/brigitte/gifs3/leopold2belgium.gif]


He managed to claim virtually all the land drained by the Congo River for Belgium.

[Image source: http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~benjamin/316kfall/316kunit3/studentprojects/conrad/congo.jpg]


Leopold was able to claim the Congo for Belgium because he promoted the fiction that his rule would be benign. In reality, the colony became one large plantation producing rubber.

[Image source: http://www.historywiz.com/images/africa/snake.gif]


Natives who failed to harvest their quota of latex were often punished by having their hands cut off.

[Image source: http://www.me.mtu.edu/~aswaisan/leopold.htm]


Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in 1911, seizing Tripoli and renaming it Libya.


Menelik II succeeded in conquering many smaller kingdoms, creating a reunified Ethiopian Empire.

[Image source: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/kshively/images/menelik.gif]


An expanding Ethiopia collided with an expanding Italian Empire, resulting in a brief war.


The Italians suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Adowa in 1896.

[Image source: http://www.rastaites.com/images/ithiopianversion.jpg]


As a result of their victory at Adowa, Ethiopia managed to be one of the only African nations to maintain it’s independence.

[Image source: http://www.artehistoria.com/historia/jpg/REC12781.jpg]


Much against Chancellor Bismarck’s desire, nationalist groups in Germany succeeded in driving Germany into the ranks of Imperialist powers in Africa.

[Image source: http://www.dhm.de/ausstellungen/victalb/e13ab3.htm]


[Image source: http://www.dhm.de/ausstellungen/victalb/kolonie3.jpg]


[Image source: http://www.usd.edu/honors/HWB/1999/1999f/imperialism%20in%20africa.htm]


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