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CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES. Section 1: The North and the Midwest Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom Section 3: The Slave System. Section 1: The North and the Midwest. Objectives:. What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families?

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CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES

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Chapter 8 regional societies l.jpg

CHAPTER 8 REGIONAL SOCIETIES

Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Section 3: The Slave System


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Objectives:

  • What were the differences between the lifestyles of wealthy, poor, and middle-class families?

  • What innovations transformed industrial and farm production and domestic life in the early 1800s?

  • What were the major issues concerning trade unions, and what actions did unions take in the early to mid-1800s?

  • What groups immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s, and how did some Americans respond to this immigration?

  • How did life in the Midwest change in the early 1800s?


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Wealthy families

  • headed by bankers, manufacturers, and merchants

  • lavish homes; often concerned about social status


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Middle-class families

  • headed by lawyers, artisans, ministers, and shopkeepers

  • modest homes; emphasized education


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Poor families

  • small apartments, attics, or cellars

  • high levels of crime and disease


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Innovations

  • The factory system allowed all aspects of manufacturing to take place under one roof.

  • Power looms enabled factory production of cloth.

  • Lighter, stronger plows required less strength to operate.

  • The mechanical reaper allowed greater harvests in less time.

  • Sewing machines saved labor in the home.


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Issues of trade unions

  • rising working hours

  • increased production demands

  • child labor

  • poverty of workers

  • safety standards


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Actions of unions

  • went on strike

  • organized political associations

  • pushed for reforms


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Immigrants in the mid-1800s

  • many Irish

  • many Germans

  • many Roman Catholics


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Nativist response

  • favoritism toward native-born

  • desire to restrict immigrants’ voting and political rights

  • creation of nativist organizations

  • anti-Catholic riots

  • violence against the foreign-born


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Section 1: The North and the Midwest

Life in the Midwest

  • increased demand for crops

  • increasing crop specialization

  • new agricultural technology

  • shift from home-produced goods to store-bought goods


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Objectives:

  • What were the major elements of the southern economy?

  • How did planters differ from yeoman farmers and poor white farmers?

  • What cultural traits did white southerners of different classes share?

  • What was life like for most free African Americans in the South?


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Elements of the southern economy

  • high-demand agricultural goods such as cotton, corn, and tobacco

  • slave labor

  • manufacturing of bricks, textiles, and tobacco products

  • good ports

  • few factory workers

  • insufficient taxes to pay for improvements

  • little purchasing power in the hands of the majority


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Planters

  • large, sometimes elaborate houses

  • 20 or more slaves


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Yeoman farmers

  • in the majority

  • small, modest homes

  • grew own food


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Poor whites

  • lived on unproductive land

  • struggled to provide for themselves


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Cultural traits of white southerners

  • diet included corn, pork, and coffee

  • similar housing

  • music, stories, arts and crafts influenced by British and African heritage

  • common religion interpreted to support slavery


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Section 2: The Cotton Kingdom

Life for free African Americans

  • usually required to register with local authorities

  • required to carry identification passes

  • not allowed to vote

  • not allowed to hold meetings

  • not allowed to bear weapons

  • not allowed to testify in court against whites


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Section 3: The Slave System

Objectives:

  • How did critics and supporters of slavery explain their positions?

  • What were the living conditions of enslaved African Americans like?

  • What was the cultural life of slaves like?

  • What types of resistance did slaves practice?


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Section 3: The Slave System

Arguments against slavery

  • contradicted the values of freedom and liberty

  • less profitable than basing economy on wage labor


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Section 3: The Slave System

Arguments for slavery

  • only way to provide an adequate supply of labor

  • slaves provided with adequate food and clothing

  • slaves cared for in old age


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Section 3: The Slave System

Living conditions of slaves

  • poor housing

  • limited food

  • violent punishments

  • threats of being sold

  • families divided


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Section 3: The Slave System

Cultural life of slaves

  • struggle to maintain family ties

  • not allowed to learn to read, so became skilled storytellers

  • animal tales used to veil discussion of owners

  • African heritage reflected in rhythms and communal singing in music

  • woodcarvings, pottery, woven baskets as folk art

  • religion a blend of Christian elements and traditional African beliefs


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Section 3: The Slave System

Resistance of slaves

  • revolts

  • work shutdowns and slowdowns

  • running away


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