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State of the art in Microfabrication. Jurriaan Schmitz [email protected] -- www.utwente.nl/ewi/sc. Contents. Microelectronics : Moore’s Law today Technology advances inside the microchip Other microfabricated devices Prospects for radiation imaging. Images:

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state of the art in microfabrication

State of the art in Microfabrication

Jurriaan Schmitz

[email protected] -- www.utwente.nl/ewi/sc

Jurriaan Schmitz - VLSI Photonics Workshop

contents
Contents
  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday
  • Technology advances inside the microchip
  • Othermicrofabricateddevices
  • Prospectsforradiation imaging
the beginning 1960s

Images:

Computer history museum

The beginning: 1960s

1968 Fairchild

2kT SRAM chip

1958 Fairchild

First planar transistor

1965 Fairchild

opamp

1962 RCA

16T logic chip

1961 Fairchild

4T5R flip-flop

gordon moore 1965
Gordon Moore 1965

Transistors keep getting cheaper!

Smaller components

Bigger chips & wafers

Better skills

“Moore’sLaw”:

The number of components on a chip doubles every year

moore s law chips accelerators fusion
Moore’sLaw – chips, accelerators, fusion…

+Brilliance of synchrotron sources, # channels in trackers…

“technologydrivenprogress”

how is moore s law keeping up
How is Moore’s Law keeping up?

GPU’s beat CPU’s

Doubling per 2 years

Components per chip

Doubling per year

Year

moore s law perspective
Moore’sLaw: perspective

Transistor gate lengthscaling is slowing down (10% per generation)

300 → 450 mm transition is delayedto 2020

ITRS roadmap: multiple breakthroughsrequiredby 2018

… whathappens next?

microchips keep getting better
Microchips keep gettingbetter

Design gap

Multicore processors

Transistor performance boosters

contents1
Contents
  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday
  • Technology advances inside the microchip
  • Othermicrofabricateddevices
  • Prospectsforradiation imaging
the cmos chip
The CMOS chip

Complexity is more than transistors alone:

A cm2chip maycontain

~20 km wires

~1010contacts

transistor evolution 1970 2000 the happy scaling era
Transistor evolution1970-2000: “the happy scaling era”

Poly Si

gate

SiO2

Silicon

Intel

Keep everything the same, onlyminiaturizeit: 1/√2 per generation

another performance booster permanent strain active strain modulation
Another performance booster:Permanent strain → activestrainmodulation

Switch strain on and off

Usepiezoelectricmaterial (e.g. PZT)

High on-current& low off-current

T. Van Hemert et al.., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2013

B. Kaleli et al., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2014

the art of microchips today
The art of microchips today

Conventionalwisdom:

“Ifyoucan do it in CMOS, do it in CMOS”

“Ifyoucan do it in silicon, do it in silicon”

  • 1-nm precision manufacturing
  • Atomary sharp interfaces
  • High-purity materials
  • Best mastered:
    • Aluminum, copper, tungsten
    • Silicon; SiGe alloys
    • SiO2, HfO2, Si3N4
emerging technologies in microelectronics replacing good old silicon
Emergingtechnologies in microelectronics:Replacinggoodoldsilicon

Ge PMOS

InGaAs NMOS

AIST

SelectiveGaN on Si

Ultra-thinsemi-on-insulator

LETI

IBM

emerging technologies in microelectronics replacing flash memory
Emergingtechnologies in microelectronics:Replacing FLASH memory
  • Competitors:
  • Resistive RAM
  • Phase-change RAM
  • STT Magnetic RAM
contents2
Contents
  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday
  • Technology advances inside the microchip
  • Othermicrofabricateddevices
  • Prospectsforradiation imaging
microtechnology more than chips
Microtechnology: more than chips

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors

microtechnology more than chips1
Microtechnology: more than chips

Steep market growth

GaN-basedtechnology

Hetero-epitaxy

Haitz’ Law

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors

microtechnology more than chips2
Microtechnology: more than chips

High potential:

Point-of-care medicine

Internet-of-things

Uses mainstream technology

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors

and sensors for radiation imaging
…and sensors forradiation imaging!

Microfabricated sensors in particlephysics:

Silicon detectors

Charge-coupleddevices

Siliconphotomultipliers

CMOS-APS based detectors

Focus on semiconductors forsignalgeneration.

Scintillators? Gas?

ingrid a radiation imaging detector
InGrid: a radiation imaging detector

TimePix

Al electrode

SU-8 post

Images: Nikhef

Standard CMOS

semiconductors on top of cmos
Semiconductors on top of CMOS

“TFA detector”, Andrea Francoet al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 2012

or vice versa
Or vice versa?

U.Twente

LETI

Stack thin-film transistors on your sensor

Monocrystalline: 3D electronics as developed e.g. by LETI (Batude et al.)

Polycrystalline: e.g. I. Brunets et al., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2009

Low temp fabrication (~400 °C)

High interconnectdensity >> TSV’s

advances in microfabrication consequences for particle physics
Advances in microfabrication:ConsequencesforParticlePhysics
  • Miniaturized detector systems mayboast
    • Improvedresolutionand speed
    • Reduced power consumption
    • LessX0, lowermass
    • Onboard intelligence
    • “The interconnect benefit”
  • IC Future: new materials & lower-power circuits
    • New semiconductor materials: GaN, InGaAs, Ge, …
    • Performance in radiation imaging?
thank you
Thank you:

My coworkers at the University of Twente

Nikhef Detector R&D group

TIPP organizers

Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Min. EconomicAffairs, FOM and EU

questions

Questions?

Jurriaan Schmitz - VLSI Photonics Workshop

cpu clock frequency
CPU clockfrequency

RC bottleneck in the chip’s wiring

wikipedia

  • The transistor count on a microprocessor has not increased since 2005.
  • The clock frequency “ “ “ “
  • The transistor gate length has hardly reduced since 2005.
    • Chipworks: only 9% per generation lately, not 30%
  • 90, 65, 45, 32, 22, 15 nm CMOS
trends like moore s law are not forever
Trends likeMoore’s “Law” are notforever

Passenger airplanes

But airplanes got much better since 1960!

inside a trigate chip
Inside a TriGate chip

H5N1 virus

(same scale)

chipworks

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