State of the art in microfabrication
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State of the art in Microfabrication. Jurriaan Schmitz [email protected] -- www.utwente.nl/ewi/sc. Contents. Microelectronics : Moore’s Law today Technology advances inside the microchip Other microfabricated devices Prospects for radiation imaging. Images:

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State of the art in Microfabrication

Jurriaan Schmitz

[email protected] -- www.utwente.nl/ewi/sc

Jurriaan Schmitz - VLSI Photonics Workshop


Contents

  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday

  • Technology advances inside the microchip

  • Othermicrofabricateddevices

  • Prospectsforradiation imaging


Images:

Computer history museum

The beginning: 1960s

1968 Fairchild

2kT SRAM chip

1958 Fairchild

First planar transistor

1965 Fairchild

opamp

1962 RCA

16T logic chip

1961 Fairchild

4T5R flip-flop


Gordon Moore 1965

Transistors keep getting cheaper!

Smaller components

Bigger chips & wafers

Better skills

“Moore’sLaw”:

The number of components on a chip doubles every year


Moore’sLaw – chips, accelerators, fusion…

+Brilliance of synchrotron sources, # channels in trackers…

“technologydrivenprogress”


How is Moore’s Law keeping up?

GPU’s beat CPU’s

Doubling per 2 years

Components per chip

Doubling per year

Year


Moore’sLaw: perspective

Transistor gate lengthscaling is slowing down (10% per generation)

300 → 450 mm transition is delayedto 2020

ITRS roadmap: multiple breakthroughsrequiredby 2018

… whathappens next?


Microchips keep gettingbetter

Design gap

Multicore processors

Transistor performance boosters


Contents

  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday

  • Technology advances inside the microchip

  • Othermicrofabricateddevices

  • Prospectsforradiation imaging


The CMOS chip

Complexity is more than transistors alone:

A cm2chip maycontain

~20 km wires

~1010contacts


Transistor evolution1970-2000: “the happy scaling era”

Poly Si

gate

SiO2

Silicon

Intel

Keep everything the same, onlyminiaturizeit: 1/√2 per generation


Transistor evolution (2)2000-present: new technologiesto boost performance

Intel


Another performance booster:Permanent strain → activestrainmodulation

Switch strain on and off

Usepiezoelectricmaterial (e.g. PZT)

High on-current& low off-current

T. Van Hemert et al.., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2013

B. Kaleli et al., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2014


The art of microchips today

Conventionalwisdom:

“Ifyoucan do it in CMOS, do it in CMOS”

“Ifyoucan do it in silicon, do it in silicon”

  • 1-nm precision manufacturing

  • Atomary sharp interfaces

  • High-purity materials

  • Best mastered:

    • Aluminum, copper, tungsten

    • Silicon; SiGe alloys

    • SiO2, HfO2, Si3N4


Emergingtechnologies in microelectronics:Replacinggoodoldsilicon

Ge PMOS

InGaAs NMOS

AIST

SelectiveGaN on Si

Ultra-thinsemi-on-insulator

LETI

IBM


Emergingtechnologies in microelectronics:Replacing FLASH memory

  • Competitors:

  • Resistive RAM

  • Phase-change RAM

  • STT Magnetic RAM


But meanwhile, FLASH is going 3D


Contents

  • Microelectronics: Moore’sLawtoday

  • Technology advances inside the microchip

  • Othermicrofabricateddevices

  • Prospectsforradiation imaging


Microtechnology: more than chips

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors


Microtechnology: more than chips

Steep market growth

GaN-basedtechnology

Hetero-epitaxy

Haitz’ Law

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors


Microtechnology: more than chips

High potential:

Point-of-care medicine

Internet-of-things

Uses mainstream technology

Flat Panel Displays

Photovoltaics

Microfluidics

Semiconductor lasers

Light Emitting Diodes

Sensors


…and sensors forradiation imaging!

Microfabricated sensors in particlephysics:

Silicon detectors

Charge-coupleddevices

Siliconphotomultipliers

CMOS-APS based detectors

Focus on semiconductors forsignalgeneration.

Scintillators? Gas?


InGrid: a radiation imaging detector

TimePix

Al electrode

SU-8 post

Images: Nikhef

Standard CMOS


Semiconductors on top of CMOS

“TFA detector”, Andrea Francoet al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 2012


Or vice versa?

U.Twente

LETI

Stack thin-film transistors on your sensor

Monocrystalline: 3D electronics as developed e.g. by LETI (Batude et al.)

Polycrystalline: e.g. I. Brunets et al., IEEE Trans. El. Dev. 2009

Low temp fabrication (~400 °C)

High interconnectdensity >> TSV’s


Advances in microfabrication:ConsequencesforParticlePhysics

  • Miniaturized detector systems mayboast

    • Improvedresolutionand speed

    • Reduced power consumption

    • LessX0, lowermass

    • Onboard intelligence

    • “The interconnect benefit”

  • IC Future: new materials & lower-power circuits

    • New semiconductor materials: GaN, InGaAs, Ge, …

    • Performance in radiation imaging?


Thank you:

My coworkers at the University of Twente

Nikhef Detector R&D group

TIPP organizers

Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Min. EconomicAffairs, FOM and EU


Questions?

Jurriaan Schmitz - VLSI Photonics Workshop


Semiconductor market: arguably the largest industry


CPU clockfrequency

RC bottleneck in the chip’s wiring

wikipedia

  • The transistor count on a microprocessor has not increased since 2005.

  • The clock frequency “ “ “ “

  • The transistor gate length has hardly reduced since 2005.

    • Chipworks: only 9% per generation lately, not 30%

  • 90, 65, 45, 32, 22, 15 nm CMOS


Trends likeMoore’s “Law” are notforever

Passenger airplanes

But airplanes got much better since 1960!


Inside a TriGate chip

H5N1 virus

(same scale)

chipworks


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