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Parenthetical Citations. in disgustingly gross detail. Huh ?. We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use. We give credit for:. direct quotes. paraphrasing. summarizing. The general, garden variety citation :.

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Parenthetical Citations

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Parenthetical Citations

in disgustingly gross detail.


Huh?

We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use.


We give credit for:


direct quotes


paraphrasing


summarizing


The general, garden variety citation:

We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128).


Two things to note:

We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128).

  • The author’s name and page number appear without a “p” or comma

    • we know the number is a page

    • we don’t need a comma, either

  • Punctuation appears outside the quotation


“Certain circumstances:”

When the quotation has pertinent punctuation in it that changes the meaning if omitted

The older waiter in Hemingway's "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" asks himself, "What did he fear?" (79).

But notice, there is still a closing punctuation mark after the citation


Speaking of Hemingway…

You might have noticed that the citation didn’t have an author in it!

The older waiter in Hemingway's "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" asks himself, "What did he fear?" (79).

That’s because I already gave the author credit!

  • Do you see it?


Trickery:

Citing the author this way (in the sentence itself) accomplishes two things:

  • this = good writing

  • 1. it cites the author (duh)

  • 2. it varies your sentence structure automatically for you!


What about those pesky internet sources?

Cite the author, forget the page number

(no pages in cyberspace)


What about those pesky internet sources?

No author? Should you really use the site?

if no one takes credit for it, is it a credible site?


If you

must, cite

the

website

What about those pesky internet sources?


If you MUST use one without an author, use the article title:

Internet Example (Preferable)


There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country

(“Coca-Cola No Al Queda”).

Internet Example (Preferable)

What if there is no title?


Internet example (no title?):

There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (snopes.com).

  • Also note that the good folks at “snopes.com” DO take credit for their work

  • Their names are Barbara and David Mickelson and they do a nice job fact-checking…

  • Note:

  • I did not give the complete URL, only a snippet

    • the complete URL goes in your reference page


But again,

Try to use as few unaccredited web pages as humanly possible

Source validity is a huge concern when the source takes no credit for their work


NEVER

Side note:

NEVER

NEVER

NEVER

NEVER let a quote stand alone! It must have an entrance OR an exit


Multiple authors:

If more than one author wrote your article, they need to be cited.

This applies to: less than three authors

If less than or including three, cite them all!


Multiple authors example:

  • There has been a drastic increase in frivolous lawsuits in the United States in the last ten years (Dewey, Cheatum and Howe 45).

Note all authors credited with last name only.


More than three authors?

Bust out the Latin stick!

“et al” is your pal!

“et al” literally translates to “and others”

Cite the first author, then slap an “et al” after it!

only applies to references with more than three authors!


Finally, the interview sources:

  • Cite the last name of the interviewee

  • Then that it was an interview


Interview example:

As junior students, we were told that this paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible to do wrong if you try” (Lesh interview).

  • Note the same rules apply:

    • no comma

    • punctuation outside of the parentheses


SO THERE YOU GO:

IN TEXT (Parenthetical) CITATIONS

EASY


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