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Information Architecture Designing and Organising Digital Information Spaces Part II. IA Building Blocks. Organization – Labeling – Navigation – Search. Organization Structures. Hierarchy : taxonomies, top levels, mental model Database : structured content, metadata, facets, relationships

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Information Architecture Designing and Organising Digital Information SpacesPart II. IA Building Blocks



Organization structures
Organization Structures

  • Hierarchy: taxonomies, top levels, mental model

  • Database:structured content, metadata, facets, relationships

  • Hypertext:cross-references, contextual

hierarchy

hypertext

database


Organization schemes
Organization Schemes

  • Exact

  • Everything has a place.

  • Easy to create and maintain.

  • Great for known-item searches.

  • e.g., white pages, geography, chronology

  • Ambiguous

  • Fuzzy and full of overlap.

  • Hard to create and maintain.

  • Great for subject searches, associative learning.

  • e.g., yellow pages, topic, audience


Movies

Personals

  • “Consider for example the proceedings we call games. I mean board games, card games, ball games, Olympic games, and so on. What is common to them all?”

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1945

  • Philosophical Investigations

Quake

Soccer

Games

Chess

Solitaire

Investing

Horoscopes




Most categorization is automatic and unconscious.

solid boxes

green squares

olive blocks

small spheres

orange circles

glass marbles

big mountains

When we define categories, we choose which attributes or properties to surface.

blue triangles

hollow shapes


“Categorization is not a matter to be taken lightly. There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

George Lakoff

Professor, Cognitive Linguistics

UC Berkeley


  • Prototype Theory There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

  • Prototype-based categories defined by fuzzy cognitive models rather than objective rules.

  • Family Resemblances

  • Members may be related without all members sharing any common property.

  • Centrality

  • Some members may be better examples

  • Membership Gradience

  • Some categories have degrees of membership and no clear boundaries

  • Basic Level Primacy

  • A psychologically basic (folk-generic) level in the hierarchy. Optimal for learning, recognition, memory, knowledge organization.


Robin There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

Core

Ostrich

Peripheral

Bat

External


Kingdom Animalia There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

Animal

Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrate

Class Mammalia

Mammal

Grey Dolphin

Black Dolphin

Bottlenose Porpoise

Cowfish

Bottle-Nosed Dolphin

Atlantic Bottlenose

Pacific Bottlenose

Order Cetacea

Whales, Dolphins

Suborder Odontoceti

Toothed Whales

Family Delphinidae

Dolphins, Killer Whales

Genus Tursiops

Basic Level

Species Truncatus

Bottlenose Dolphin


Sony Clie PEG-NZ90 Handheld There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

Electronics > Audio & Video

Electronics > Brands > Sony

Electronics > Camera & Photo

Electronics > Computers

Gifts > Over $100

Basic Level

Kingdom Electronics

Phylum Handhelds & PDAs

Class Palm Operating Systems

Family Sony

Genus Clie

Species PEG-NZ90


Labeling
Labeling There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

  • Types

  • Purposes

  • Sources


  • Descriptive Name There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

  • A name which describes a product, service, or company. Descriptive names, such as Workgroup Server and Pacific Gas and Electric, have content, but often are not protectable and typically are not favored by trademark attorneys.

  • Proprietary NameA protectable name which one is able to own and trademark, as opposed to a descriptive name, which is not protectable or ownable. See Brand Name.

  • Suggestive NameA name built on or utilizing words or word parts which suggest or refer to the goods or services, but do not literally describe them. Oracle and Safeway are suggestive. Suggestive names are often protectable (unlike descriptive names), but may be weaker as trademarks than coined/fanciful or arbitrary names.

  • PsycholinguisticsThe study of how language is understood and interpreted and how and why the individual responds to discrete aspects of language.


Navigation
Navigation There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

  • Support task flow

  • Provide context and flexibility

  • Avoid drowning content


Global There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

Local

Contextual


Global There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”

Breadcrumb

Contextual

Local


Path There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”|Location|Attribute


Path There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”|Location|Attribute


Path There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”|Location|Attribute


Navigation Stress Test There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.”by Keith Instone >http://keith.instone.org/navstress/



Home Footwear > Women’s > Trail > Air Trail Pegasus

Camp/Hike

Water Treatment

Water Purifiers


Supplemental navigation
Supplemental Navigation Footwear > Women’s > Trail > Air Trail Pegasus

  • Sitemaps

    • Table of contents

    • Top few levels of hierarchy

    • Scope / organization

    • Exploratory browsing

  • Indexes

    • A-Z index (back-of-book)

    • Finely grained

    • Relatively non-hierarchical

    • Known-item finding


The Right Number Footwear > Women’s > Trail > Air Trail Pegasus by Scott McCloud


Search
Search Footwear > Women’s > Trail > Air Trail Pegasus

  • “…studies show that search is still the primary usability problem in web site design.”

  • Vividence Research: Common Usability Problems

  • Poorly organized search results

  • Poor information architecture

  • Source: Flexible Search and Navigation using Faceted Metadata (UC Berkeley SIMS)



  • “I really do see the future in terms of categories and clicking. The more I watch what's happening with the evolution of web sites, the more I believe that Search is essentially an experiment that has failed.”

  • Jared Spool

  • http://www.info-arch.org/lists/sigia-l/0302/0297.html


Search systems
Search Systems clicking. The more I watch what's happening with the evolution of web sites, the more I believe that Search is essentially an experiment that has failed.”

  • http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/search.html


Where to find me
Where To Find Me clicking. The more I watch what's happening with the evolution of web sites, the more I believe that Search is essentially an experiment that has failed.”

  • Peter Morville

  • [email protected]

  • Semantic Studios

  • http://semanticstudios.com/

  • Asilomar Institute for Information Architecture

  • http://aifia.org/

  • Findability

  • http://findability.org/


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