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Waves, Light & Quanta. Tim Freegarde. Web Gallery of Art; National Gallery, London. . Young’s double slit diffraction. x. amplitude. intensity. . amplitude. Single slit diffraction. x. intensity. Diffraction grating. x. place secondary sources along wavefront.

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waves light quanta

Waves, Light & Quanta

Tim Freegarde

Web Gallery of Art; National Gallery, London

single slit diffraction

amplitude

Single slit diffraction

x

intensity

diffraction grating

Diffraction grating

x

  • place secondary sources along wavefront
  • ...and trigger when wavefront arrives
  • apply to sinusoidal waves by taking into account the phase with which components arrive

INTERFERENCE

  • combine by adding the amplitudes
  • contributions may therefore interfere constructively or destructively
michelson interferometer

Michelson interferometer

δx

  • interference by division of amplitude

beamsplitter

detector

source

6

michelson interferometer1

Michelson interferometer

δx

δx

  • interference by division of amplitude

beamsplitter

detector

source

7

michelson interferometer2

δx

δx

  • interference by division of amplitude

Michelson interferometer

beamsplitter

detector

  • FTIR: Fourier transform infrared

source

chemistry.oregonstate.edu

optique-ingenieur.org

  • sodium doublet
newton s rings

www.sciencebuddies.org

Newton’s rings

beam-splitter

diffuser

lens

plate

  • apply to sinusoidal waves by taking into account the phase with which components arrive
  • combine by adding the amplitudes
  • contributions may therefore interfere constructively or destructively
michelson stellar interferometer2

Michelson stellar interferometer

Mount Wilson Observatory www.mwoa.org

coherence

degree of coherence

  • complex degree of coherence

NON-POINT OBJECTS

  • many independent emitters, e.g. different atoms in star
  • spatial extent (angular width) determines fringe visibility
  • partial visibility when phase difference partially defined

Coherence

  • coherence is a measure of extent to which the phase difference is known
  • (approximate expression – requires complex numbers)
light and optics

RAYS

  • straight propagation paths
  • least time (Fermat’s principle)

focus

  • reflection, refraction, lenses, telescopes, microscopes

Light and optics

directrix

WAVES

  • Huygens’ description of propagation, reflection, refraction
  • polarization, colour (wavelength, frequency)
  • diffraction, interference, beats, interferometers
  • Maxwell’s electromagnetism, Einstein’s relativity

PHOTONS

  • Planck, Compton, Einstein
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