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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Waves, Light & Quanta' - gene

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### Diffraction grating

### Grating spectrometer

### Michelson interferometer

### Newton’s rings

### Michelson stellar interferometer

### Coherence

### Light and optics

x

- place secondary sources along wavefront

- ...and trigger when wavefront arrives

- apply to sinusoidal waves by taking into account the phase with which components arrive

INTERFERENCE

- combine by adding the amplitudes

- contributions may therefore interfere constructively or destructively

δx

δx

- interference by division of amplitude

beamsplitter

detector

- FTIR: Fourier transform infrared

source

chemistry.oregonstate.edu

optique-ingenieur.org

- sodium doublet

beam-splitter

diffuser

lens

plate

- apply to sinusoidal waves by taking into account the phase with which components arrive

- combine by adding the amplitudes

- contributions may therefore interfere constructively or destructively

Mount Wilson Observatory www.mwoa.org

- complex degree of coherence

NON-POINT OBJECTS

- many independent emitters, e.g. different atoms in star

- spatial extent (angular width) determines fringe visibility

- partial visibility when phase difference partially defined

- coherence is a measure of extent to which the phase difference is known

- (approximate expression – requires complex numbers)

- straight propagation paths

- least time (Fermat’s principle)

focus

- reflection, refraction, lenses, telescopes, microscopes

directrix

WAVES

- Huygens’ description of propagation, reflection, refraction

- polarization, colour (wavelength, frequency)

- diffraction, interference, beats, interferometers

- Maxwell’s electromagnetism, Einstein’s relativity

PHOTONS

- Planck, Compton, Einstein

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