Kitchen science investigators promoting identity development as scientific reasoners and thinkers
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Tamara L. Clegg School of Interactive Computing Georgia Institute of Technology. Kitchen Science Investigators: Promoting Identity Development as Scientific Reasoners and Thinkers. Candyce. 6 th Grade KSI Participant. Candyce.

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Kitchen science investigators promoting identity development as scientific reasoners and thinkers

Tamara L. Clegg

School of Interactive Computing

Georgia Institute of Technology

Kitchen Science Investigators: Promoting Identity Development as Scientific Reasoners and Thinkers


Candyce

Candyce

6thGrade

KSI Participant


Candyce1

Candyce

Tammy: Okay, and then what do you, what do you want to be when you grow up?Candyce: [pause] I want to be a, well I've been thinking about being a chef now that I'm in KSI. So I think that would be a really interesting job.Tammy: Okay, what makes you think that'll be an interesting job?Candyce: Because, okay, if I'm a chef, then most chefs just put ingredients in there, but if I'm a chef, my food'll turn out like exactly the way I wanted it, and it'll probably be even better than I expected because I'll actually think about the way that I wanted it instead of just putting ingredients in there and following a recipe. Like I can change up the ingredients because I'll know what the thickeners do and I'll know what the, these type of liquids do. Yeah, so I can change it up to get it the way I want it uh, specifically.


Candyce2

Candyce

6thGrade

KSI Participant


Candyce s scientific identity shifts

Candyce’s Scientific Identity Shifts


Agenda

Agenda


Barriers to science identity development

Barriers to Science Identity Development

  • Many learners don’t recognize utility of science

    • Useful only in school

  • In school they face

    • Difficulties connecting science to

      • The real world - their everyday lives

      • Their own interests and goals

        (Chinn & Malhotra 2001)

    • Tensions between science and home community

      • Minorities: language use (Brown 2004)

      • Low SES groups: Silent and obedient in school

        (Brickhouse & Potter 2001)


Promoting identity in science

Promoting Identity in Science

  • Help learners see themselves as people who can and do use the practices and knowledge of science

  • My Approach: Design Transformative Learning Environments

    • Help learners develop scientific identity by engaging in scientific practice

Professionally

Personally


Transformative learning environments

Transformative Learning Environments

  • Definition: Environments designed to help learners come to see themselves in new ways by enabling them to identify and explore potential roles for themselves

  • Not to be confused with transformative learning theory (Mezirow 1975, Cranton 2002)


My research questions

My Research Questions

  • Design-based research aiming to understand

    • (Theory) How the development of scientific reasoning identity and disposition happen

    • (Practice) How to help kids develop identity and disposition as scientific reasoners and thinkers

  • Identity and Disposition?

    • Identity: how you see yourself

    • Disposition: the things you take initiative to do

    • Clearly, they are related


Theoretical framework

Disposition

Scientific inquiry

Theoretical Framework


Identity as discourse identity

Identity as Discourse Identity

  • Discourse: Any combinations of social and historical ways of being that can cause one to be recognized as a certain type of person

    (Gee 2001)

  • Discourse:

  • Ways of

  • Speaking & writing

  • Acting & Interacting

  • Using face or body

  • Feeling, believing,

  • & valuing

  • Using objects, tools,

  • or technologies


Scientific practice

Scientific Practice

Authentic scientific practice

  • In the context of real world problems

  • Full range of variables can be tested and outcomes may be unknown

  • Procedures for answering questions chosen at least partially by participants

  • Chinn & Malhotra 2001; Gleason & Schauble 1999

  • Definition: The reasoning relevant to the pursuit of explaining, predicting, and controlling of empirical phenomena

    Creating and using evidence

    Designing experiments

    According to scientific standards

    Chinn & Malhotra, 2001; Osborne et. Al, 2001; Gleason & Schauble 1999


    My hypothesis developing disposition

    My Hypothesis: Developing Disposition

    • Goal for learners:

    • Recognize when something is scientific

    • In a situation where scientific reasoning is relevant, they engage


    Thesis statement

    Thesis Statement

    • Engaging learners in scientific practice in the context of different Discourses they participate in will lead to their development of scientific dispositions, which will in turn promote learners’ scientific identity development.


    Kitchen science investigators

    One Transformative Learning Environment

    Kitchen ScienceInvestigators


    Starting with learners interests and goals kitchen science investigators

    Starting With Learners’ Interests and Goals - Kitchen Science Investigators

    • Design the Context for learning: After-school or summer camp learning environment where kids learn science and scientific reasoning skills through cooking

      • Intention: Kids will see relevance of science through experiencing the value of scientific reasoning for them

    • Help them see food as an object of investigation through play

    • Transition them to engagement in authentic scientific practice

    • Analyze development of disposition and what’s causing or prohibiting it


    Kitchen science investigators1

    Kitchen Science Investigators

    • Three aspects that help promote identity development and science learning

      • Activities

      • Technology

      • Facilitation

    • Activities

      • Cooking Experiment – Science Experiment

      • Progress to more complex dishes


    Children tend to

    Children tend to:

    • Role of Technology

      • Prompt learners to focus on the scientific reasoningwhile cooking

        Gardner, Clegg, Williams, & Kolodner

        International Conference of the Learning Sciences, 2006

      • Structured & Free-form technology support

        Clegg & Kolodner 2007

        Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning 2(3), 239-266

    Forget the purpose of experimentation

    End investigations prematurely

    Fail to recognize importance of scientific situations

    (Gleason & Schauble 1999, Quintana et al. 2004)


    Comparing variation results

    Comparing Variation Results

    Group Name & Variation

    Observation

    Questions


    Free form technology support

    Free-form Technology Support

    Creating stories and explanatoids from experiments and investigations


    Role of facilitators

    Role of Facilitators

    • During whole-group discussions

      • Guiding Conversations

      • Explaining Science

    • During small-group work

      • Modeling Scientific Reasoning Processes

    • Between sessions

      • Design activities based on learners interests and understanding


    Methods

    Research in this context

    Methods


    Analyzing development of disposition and what s causing or inhibiting it

    Analyzing Development of Disposition and what’s causing (or inhibiting) it

    In the context of KSI:

    • Q1: What is the range of Discourses learners are engaging in?

    • Q2: How is the scientific reasoning Discourse influenced by participation in those Discourses?

    • Q3: How does participation in KSI influence learners’ disposition to reason scientifically?


    Study details

    Location

    YWCA – Teen Girls In Technology (TGI-Tech)

    Local Public Middle School

    Participants

    15-20 Minority Girls

    6-8th Grade

    Facilitators

    Me, Janet, Christina

    KSI research lab

    Duration

    After school

    1.5 Hours Weekly

    9 Months (Fall 2007 - Spring 2008)

    Multiple Case Study

    4 Focal Girls

    Representing variety along:

    Interests

    Participation Styles

    (Clegg & Kolodner, 2007)

    Study Details


    Data collection and sources

    Data Collection and Sources

    Data sources

    Video data

    Software logs

    Facilitator field notes

    Interviews

    Learners

    Parents

    Science Teachers

    Learner Middle

    Learner Initial

    Learner Ending

    Parent Initial

    Parent Ending

    Teacher Initial

    Parent Ending


    Ksi activities

    KSI Activities

    • Fall 2007 - Leaveners

      • Day 1: Food Tasting

      • Day 2: Food Tasting II

      • Day 3: Pizza

      • Day 4: Brownies

      • Day 5: Egg-sploration

      • Day 6: Cookies

      • Day 7: BS/BP Experiment

      • Day 8: Choice I

      • Day 9: Choice II

      • Day 10: Choice III and Parent Presentations

    • Spring 2008 - Thickeners

      • Day 11: Biscuits & Gravy

      • Day 12: Pudding

      • Day 13: Good Eats/Pudding Results

      • Day 14: Strawberry No-Bake Pie

      • Day 15: Strawberry Pie Analysis

      • Day 16: Thickener Choice I

      • Day 17: Choice I Re-make

      • Day 18: Choice II

      • Day 19: Choice III

      • Day 20: Choice IV & parent Presentations

    Structured

    `

    Less Structured


    Data analysis

    Data Analysis

    • Coding: Discourse Participation and Development

      • Scientist

        • Chinn & Malhotra, 2001 framework

      • Chef

        • Actions, questions, values, etc. pertaining to creating and preparing dishes

      • Friend

        • Social conversation or play

        • Laughter, personal conversation, playful, arguments, etc.

    • Coding Order

      • Interview data

        • Changes, shifts, and developments in Discourses

        • Causes

      • Selected observation days (5-6 days per learner)

      • Coded observation days (active participation) by Discourse


    Discourse development

    Discourse Development

    • Within each Discourse:

    • Ways of

    • Speaking or writing

    • Acting or Interacting

    • Using face or body

    • Feeling, believing,

    • or valuing

    • Using objects, tools,

    • or technologies

    Looked within each Discourse to understand how

    participation shifted over time in each


    Influences of other discourses on the scientist discourse

    Influences of Other Discourses on the Scientist Discourse?

    • Across each Discourse:

    • Ways of

    • Speaking or writing

    • Acting or Interacting

    • Using face or body

    • Feeling, believing,

    • or valuing

    • Using objects, tools,

    • or technologies

    Looked for connections from each Discourse to the

    Scientist Discourse to understand how participation

    shifts in each Discourse influenced Scientist Discourse


    Scientific disposition

    Scientific Disposition

    • Participation in Scientist Discourse

    • Amount

    • Complexity

    • Contexts

    • Overarching ideals about, values of doing science

    • (Bereiter, 1995; Gresalfi, 2006; Katz 1993)


    Ksi focal girls

    KSI Focal Girls


    Candyce3

    Candyce

    • Hated science class

      • Teacher

      • Experiments

      • Switched classes

    • KSI

      • Descriptive observations became goals

      • Used science experiments to achieve

      • Developed “craving for knowledge”

    6th Grade

    Interests: Science, Cooking

    Participation Style: Quiet/Vocal


    Candyce4

    Candyce

    6th Grade

    Interests: Science, Cooking

    Participation Style: Quiet/Vocal

    Okay, what are my strengths as an investigator? I like finding things out because I'm like the type of person who will want to know something and who loves getting information. So I'm good at that. That's what strength [I have]. Yeah, I have a craving for knowledge.


    Malaysia

    Malaysia

    • Science class boring

      • Stare at teacher

      • Read book

    • KSI

      • Cooking expertise – pasta and fruit tart

        • Understood starch absorption

        • Scientific terminology became goals for dishes

      • Increased science interest

    6th Grade

    Interests: Social, Cooking

    Participation Style: Vocal


    Malaysia1

    Malaysia

    M: Cause, [KSI]'s like ↑fun, but it's educational at the same time. So, and then it'll help you understand science more, cause kids don't really understand that boring way cause they fall asleep and stuff, so if you do KSI, you can be excited and enthusiastic and then you'll be learning about science at the same time.T: So, what do you mean by boring stuff?M: Like sitting in the classroom opening your textbook or sitting there staring at the teacher.

    6th Grade

    Interests: Social, Cooking

    Participation Style: Vocal


    Analyzing development of disposition and what s causing or inhibiting it1

    Analyzing Development of Disposition and what’s causing (or inhibiting) it

    In the context of KSI:

    • Q1: What is the range of Discourses learners are engaging in?

    • Q2: How is the scientific reasoning Discourse influenced by participation in those Discourses?

    • Q3: How does participation in KSI influence learners’ disposition to reason scientifically?


    Discourses disposition

    Discourses & Disposition


    Analyzing development of disposition and what s causing or inhibiting it2

    Analyzing Development of Disposition and what’s causing (or inhibiting) it

    In the context of KSI:

    • Q1: What is the range of Discourses learners are engaging in?

    • Q2: How is the scientific reasoning Discourse influenced by participation in those Discourses?

    • Q3: How does participation in KSI influence learners’ disposition to reason scientifically?


    Friend impact on scientist discourse

    Friend Impact on Scientist Discourse


    Additional set of friends impact on scientist discourse malaysia

    Additional Set of Friends: Impact on Scientist Discourse - Malaysia

    Friend: Additional Set of Friends

    Scientist

    Access to others who participated in science

    Began to use scientific practices (e.g., vocabulary, making observations)

    In science class: helped Malaysia to participate more

    Understood science teacher’s expectations

    Helped science teacher outside of class

    • Friends in science class

      • Did not participate in science class

        • Malaysia didn’t either

    • Additional set of friends in KSI

      • Some older and not in science class (e.g., Amber)

        • Modeled scientific vocabulary and practices

      • Some were in science class

      • KSI friends participated in science class

      • Malaysia began to participate as well

    • Closer relationship with teacher


    Chef impact on scientist discourse

    Chef Impact on Scientist Discourse


    Chef impact on scientist discourse candyce

    Chef Impact on Scientist Discourse: Candyce

    Chef

    Scientist

    Use of science to achieve goals

    Descriptive observations

    Experimentation and results

    Conceptual understanding

    Asking questions

    Scientific Expertise: Additional investigations

    E.g., Baking soda & buttermilk experiment

    • Becoming an expert chef

      • Tasting and describing different puddings

      • Making pudding with different thickeners

    • Achieving cooking goals: More complex dishes with thickeners

      • Fruit Tarts

      • Sweet and Sour Chicken

      • Chocolate cake with cream center

    • Cooking accomplishments and ability


    Analyzing development of disposition and what s causing or inhibiting it3

    Analyzing Development of Disposition and what’s causing (or inhibiting) it

    In the context of KSI:

    • Q1: What is the range of Discourses learners are engaging in?

    • Q2: How is the scientific reasoning Discourse influenced by participation in those Discourses?

    • Q3: How does participation in KSI influence learners’ disposition to reason scientifically?


    Scientific disposition1

    Scientific Disposition

    • Relevance of science for achieving goals

      • Experimentation

      • Scientific understanding

    • Connection of science to real world experiences and interest

    • Curiosity – desire to know more


    Discourses and disposition

    Discourses and Disposition


    Implications for the design of transformative learning environments tle

    Implications for the Design of Transformative Learning Environments (TLE)


    Friends scientists implications for design of tles

    Friends & Scientists: Implications for Design of TLEs

    • Activities

      • Real world context allows for shared experiences - bonding

    • Whole group & small group conversations

      • Combination of diverse learners

        • Particularly older learners interested in science

        • Didn’t always work

    • Offering choice

      • Promotes working together based on interests

    Clegg & Kolodner

    American Education Research Association, 2010


    Chefs scientists implications for design of tles

    Chefs & Scientists: Implications for Design of TLEs

    Activities

    • Hard to predict when learners will ask questions or become interested

    • All activities designed in the context of achieving learners’ goals

      • Make them natural to refer back to

    • Ability to participate and make mistakes

    Clegg, Gardner, & Kolodner,

    International Conference of the Learning Sciences, 2010


    Chefs scientists implications for design of tles1

    Chefs & Scientists: Implications for Design of TLEs

    Facilitation

    Recognize when learners’ interests are piqued/dwindling

    Capitalize on those moments

    Find opportunities for learners to answer their own questions

    Unplanned scientific activities

    Selecting appropriate practices

    Build off of interest of learners

    Clegg, Gardner, & Kolodner,

    International Conference of the Learning Sciences, 2010


    Chefs scientists implications for design of tles2

    Chefs & Scientists: Implications for Design of TLEs

    Technology

    Structured Experiments

    Helped learners measure and compare experiment results

    Use for later recipe decisions

    Memorized later

    Connected with goals

    Choice Days – Stories and Explanatoids

    Helped learners present their unique experiences and scientific practices

    Needed more guidance

    Facilitator prompting with questions & typing responses


    Contributions

    Promoting Identity Development as Scientific Reasoners and Thinkers

    Contributions


    Contributions transformative learning environments

    Contributions – Transformative Learning Environments

    • Implications for design

      • Small and large groups

        • Facilitator and peer support

      • Contextualized experiments

        • Helped learners connect science to their lives

        • Spaces for developing scientific expertise to share with others

      • Fostering social connections

        • Influences learners’ scientific Discourse participation

        • Need support for social interactions

    • Technology not as central as we expected

      • But still important

      • Helped facilitators and learners


    Contributions transformative learning environments1

    Contributions – Transformative Learning Environments

    • Rich descriptions of Scientific Discourse participation and influence from other Discourses


    Discourses disposition1

    Discourses & Disposition


    Contributions transformative learning environments2

    Contributions – Transformative Learning Environments

    • Helped learners imagine and align themselves as scientists

      • (Chapter 12)


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • How does the development of scientific identity and disposition happen?

      • Engaging learners as scientists and friends in a real world context helped them to take the practices on, promoting their scientific identity development

    • How can we promote it?

      • Providing opportunities to engage learners in scientific practice in the context of their goals with peers and mentors who share their interests


    Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgements

    • Janet, Mark, Amy

    • Magnia, Na’ilah

    • Christina

    • KK, Jakita,

    • Swaroop

    • Ms. Ev & Ted Clegg

    • Grandparents

    • Terry & Rashida

    • Faith Christian Center

    • Dorn, Lijun, Allison, Betsy, Landry,Jamye, Brad, Jill, Andrea F., Andrea G., Susan, Erika, Valencia, Sheena, Kim, Chandan, Craig, Val, James, Marshini, George

    KSIers Past and Present

    YWCA, Schools,

    KSI Researchers, Teachers,

    Parents


    My own motivation

    My Own Motivation

    • My own experience – one of few African American women

      • Grade School: Math & science classes

      • Balancing tensions – being cool vs. being smart

  • Decline of minorities and women in STEM fields through the pipeline

    • (Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, 2007)


  • Broader perspective of science identities

    Broader Perspective of Science Identities


    Imagination and alignment

    Imagination and Alignment


    Imagination alignment amber

    Imagination & Alignment: Amber


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