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Spelling Rules. Adding –s, - es , - ing and - ed. Vowels: a, e, i , o, u Consonants: all other letters. Vowels and Consonants. 1. For most third-person singular (he, she, it) verbs and for plural nouns, add –s to the simple form : Verb: swim  swims Noun: lake lakes.

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Spelling rules

Spelling Rules

Adding –s, -es, -ing and -ed


Vowels and consonants

  • Vowels: a, e, i, o, u

  • Consonants: all other letters

Vowels and Consonants


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es1

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es2

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es3

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es4

  • 4. If the simple form ends with a for plural nouns, consonant + o, add –s or –es. Some words take –es:

    • dodoes

    • echoechoes

    • gogoes

    • heroheroes

    • potatopotatoes

    • tomatotomatoes

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es5

  • 4. If the simple form ends with a for plural nouns, consonant + o, add –s or –es. Some words take both –s or –es:

    • tornado tornados or tornadoes

    • volcano volcanos or volcanoes

    • zero zeros or zeroes

  • Vowel + o: radioradios, zoozoos

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs and nouns in s and es6

  • 5. If the simple form ends in a for plural nouns, single f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add-es.

    • knife

      • knives

    • shelf

      • shelves

  • Exceptions: beliefbeliefs, chiefchiefs, roofroofs, hoofhooves, scarfscarfs or scarves

Spelling of Verbs and Nounsin –s and -es


Spelling of verbs ending in ing

  • 1 for plural nouns, . For most verbs, add –ing to the simple form of the verb.

    • sleep

      • sleeping

    • talk

      • talking

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ing1

  • 2. If the simple form for plural nouns, ends in a single e, drop the e and add –ing.

    • live

      • living

    • write

      • writing

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ing2

  • 3. If the simple form for plural nouns, ends in ie, change the ie to y and add –ing.

    • die

      • dying

    • lie

      • lying

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ing3

  • 4. If the simple form of a for plural nouns, one-syllable verbends in a single vowel + consonant, double the final consonant and add –ing.

    • hit

      • hitting

    • stop

      • stopping

  • Compare to two vowels + consonant: eatingeating

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ing4

  • 5. If the simple form of a verb with for plural nouns, two or more syllables ends in a single vowel + consonant, double the final consonant if the stress is on the final syllable. Do not double the final consonant if the stress is not on the final syllable:

    • admit

      • admitting

    • begin

      • beginning

    • develop

      • developing

    • listen

      • listening

  • NOTE: the final l is always doubled in British English, but not in American English.

    traveltravelling or traveling

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ing5

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing


Spelling of verbs ending in ed

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


Spelling of verbs ending in ed1

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


Spelling of verbs ending in ed2

  • 3. If the simple form for plural nouns, ends with a consonant + y, change the y to I and add -ed.

    • bury

      • buried

    • dry

      • dried

  • Compare with vowel + y: play/played, enjoy/enjoyed

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


Spelling of verbs ending in ed3

  • 4. If the simple form of a for plural nouns, one-syllable verb ends with a single vowel + consonant, double the final consonant and add -ed.

    • plan

      • planned

    • shop

      • shopped

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


Spelling of verbs ending in ed4

  • 5. If the simple form of a for plural nouns, verb with two or more syllables ends in a single vowel + consonant, double the final consonant and add –ed only when the stress is on the final syllable. Do not double the final consonant if the stress is not on the final syllable.

    • prefer

      • preferred

    • enter

      • entered

  • The final l is always doubled in British English, but not in American English:

    • travel travel or travelled

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


Spelling of verbs ending in ed5

  • 6. Do for plural nouns, not double the final consonants x, w and y.

    • coax

      • coaxed

    • snow

      • snowed

    • stay

      • stayed

Spelling of Verbs ending in -ed


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