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MOTIVATION . INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: Use Good Music – the music itself should be the central motivating force for any musical learning, though it is rarely the only factor. Music must be of high quality, for poor music soon becomes tiresome and boring. Use Good Music Cont.

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Use Good Music – the music itself should be the central motivating force for any musical learning, though it is rarely the only factor. Music must be of high quality, for poor music soon becomes tiresome and boring.

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Use Good Music Cont.

a. Teachers are tempted to make one of two mistakes regarding the quality of the music to be use

The first is that of using popular commercial music on the grounds that it will interest the student

The fallacy in this approach is that the basic goal – without a developing a discriminating love of it music – can never be reached

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Use Good Music Cont.

ii. Setting unrealistic high standards for the music used.

To use good music does not necessarily mean the use of great music. A skillful teacher begins where the student is – selecting music that will appeal to their present level of understanding – gradually introducing them to better music as they become ready for it.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Use Wide Musical Repertoire – New music is the most obvious way to maintain interest. Nothing brings on boredom faster than working consistently on the same few pieces trudging wearily over the same exercises until all is perfected.

If a long period of time is needed to learn a piece well, the selection is probably too difficult.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Have A Goal – each student should know why they are practicing and what their objective are. The teachers should make clear in rehearsals where they are leading the group.

for the greatest effectiveness, a goal must be fairly specific. If the group is working toward the concert performance, members will put forth more effort if the date has been selected and the amount of rehearsals been established.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Relate Technical Drill to Real Music – Scales, study is, and exercise material should be used in anticipation of the difficult spots in music being learned. Until the students encounter a particular technical problem in a piece of music, they will see little reason for practicing exercises designed to give them that facility.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Develop Musicianship Skills and Factual Knowledge – factual knowledge about music and the ability to perform some of the musicianship skills, such as transposing, reading several clefs, and improvising, are both goals of the music program and real motivators. Like good music, skill and knowledge are of intrinsic value and furnish valid ends of motivation.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Develop a Tradition of Excellence – music programs with a reputation for quality provide a momentum that motivates students to practice and minimizes discipline problems.

When there is an established standard to measure up to, students usually accept the challenge.

High school students are idealistic, and they take pride in doing things well, even though they often talked to the contrary.

A tradition of excellence is not established overnight. With a beginning teacher these traditions start with the younger students.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Help the Student to Arrange Enjoyable, Independent Musical Activities Other Than the Private Lesson and the Large Group Rehearsal – try to arrange schedules and assignments to make it possible for students to work together toward a common goal

practicing alone can be boring

working on parts that other students can be enjoyable

supply duets trios and other kinds of ensemble music to interested students

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Encouraged the Establishment of Small Ensembles – a small chamber group presents the greatest musical challenge, the best training, the heaviest individual responsibility, and the highest musical pleasure of any activity

some special problems are involved in establishing small ensembles: scheduling, proving students of similar levels of ability, and helping the groups become independent of teacher supervision

this is likely to be more possible in a larger school

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

Select Music in Which Supporting Players Can Star – the second-chair viola player and a third snare drum are likely to lead humdrum existence is musically. The teachers should use music where they give solo passages, when possible, to the little heard supporting players.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

10. Hear Good Performances – players should not play all of the time. They should occasionally listen.

11. Obtain Good Equipment and Facilities – Good tools help to produce good results. Poor instruments affect both the group and the individual; and inferior instrument handicaps the student and may embarrass them as well.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

12. Develop Favorable Attitudes – Students will accomplish little without the proper attitude. Attitudes are contagious – especially among teenagers –and so the attitude of a few may set the pattern for the group.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

13. Build Esprit de Corps – Pride and responsibility are least successful when they spring solely from teacher inspiration, though in the beginning it may be necessary for the teacher to be the main source of inspiration.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

14. Use Student Leaders – Esprit de corps can be enhanced through the selection of the right students leaders. In addition, some of the less talented students can find recognition and satisfaction in performing organizational tasks or becoming student officers. Student government not only aids in developing morale but also in lessoning the load for the director.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

15. Treat All Students and Student Ideas With Respect – Students need to feel that their ideas contribute to the selection of music, procedures, organizational rules, and even the amount of practice expected of every member of this. It must be clear that the director makes the final decision in all matters but that they are also a good listener.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

16. Plan a Sensible Schedule – The schedule should make it possible for students to practice and to attend all extra rehearsals. Performance goals should be reasonable so that the students are not disparaged.

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Intrinsic Motivation Cont.

17. Take into Consideration the Motivational Force of the Teacher – the teacher is the decisive element in providing inspiration, motivation, and learning. The teachers level of musicianship, technical facility as a performer, command of musical knowledge, leadership, and depth and breadth as a human being can inspire students to imitation and emulation.

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Praise is Effective When Properly Used – Most students will respond to a deserved complement from a teacher with a respect, and they will work to earn one. The praise must be honest and must not be so frequent as to become meaningless.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Criticism and Disapproval Also have a Place in Motivation – Being inspirational should not imply that the teacher is the “Good Humor Man”. They should use praise liberally when it is merited but be firm when the situation demands it.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Keep Parents Informed Regarding Practice Requirements and Objectives – Enlist parents’ support but never allow home practice to be used as a form of punishment for any student. Emphasis on a regular time for practice may help serve as a kind of motivator for the student.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Grades are as valid in Music as in Other Areas – Some teachers recommend grading as a disciplinary measure – that is, the student who manages to avoid breaking the rules receives a high grade. It seems more psychologically sound to accept the traditional view of grading as every ward for good work.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Grades are as valid in Music as in Other Areas Cont…

Practice Charts – students are required to practice a specified amount each day.

Progress Charts – students are graded for completing specified objectives.

Point System – like progress charts, the point system rewards achievement and in addition may cover a wide range of other accomplishments. Can be used to award students of the organization.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Competitive Seating Plans are an Excellent Stimulus – when there is a competitive seating plan, the better players are encouraged to work for the honor of retaining their positions as first-chair players, while those beneath and strive to catch up.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Challenge Systems are a Corollary of the Competitive Seating Plan – Students in the lower ranks may aspire to the higher chairs through testing the occupant in a fair match. The teacher should make the challenge as democratic and fair as possible.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Tryouts for Chair Positions or Ensemble Membership are Important – As in other subjects, the music teachers should make specific assignments and then test all students and the preparation of the assignments. Whether such tryouts/tests affect seating is up to the teacher.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

Competition on Technical Proficiency as a Place – Students can derive a great deal of fun and inspiration from an occasional contest for sheer technical proficiency. Such contests should not be considered as a serious part of evaluation.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

An Occasional Written Test May be of Value – Tests of musical learning, used infrequently, may result in extra effort from students.

Various Methods of Evaluation May Add to the Perceived Importance of the Group and its Goals – Public performance evaluation, properly handled, can contribute both to the level of motivation and to musical understanding.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

11. Membership Standards for all Groups, Beginning through Advanced, are Desirable – Although there must be some flexibility in selecting members for each group, students should have a fairly accurate idea of what must be accomplished in order to gain membership in the group. A clear set of standards is one way to encourage practice and achievement.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

12. Awards Provide another Stimulus to Effort – An award has no intrinsic value and of its own and is important only as a means to promoting greater musical growth.

13. Scholarships are an Even More Effective Incentive to Achievement – For example, a scholarship for an outstanding student to go to summer music camp.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

14. Section Rehearsals are a Necessity for All Good Bands and Orchestras – Sectionals provide additional incentive for outside practice.

15. Summer Music Camp Offer Students a Chance to Improve Their Musical Skills in New and Stimulating Surroundings – The inspiration of a music camp comes from excellent teachers, the outstanding ability of other students, and the high level of performance.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

16. New Instruments Provide a Reward for Work Well Done – The teachers should encourage the students to own the best instruments can afford.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

17. Tape Recordings and Videotapes Allow Students to Hear and See Their Efforts and Point Up Shortcomings as Well as Achievements – Problems of intonation, wrong notes, and poor attacks and releases often show up more vividly on tape than in actual rehearsal.

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Extrinsic Motivation Cont.

18. Social Activities can be any Easy Way to Develop Greater Interest – Special dances, banquets, and trips, etc.

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