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IB Student Picnic. Wednesday, tomorrow!, 5-8 pm Illini Grove Pavilion (corner of Lincoln and Pennsylvania Ave.) Meet FacultyFree FoodFree T-shirt Find out what SIB is all about and meet other IB majors!! Email [email protected] or 333-3044 **Rain Location: 3 rd floor Levis**

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IB Student Picnic

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IB Student Picnic

Wednesday, tomorrow!, 5-8 pm

Illini Grove Pavilion

(corner of Lincoln and Pennsylvania Ave.)

Meet FacultyFree FoodFree T-shirt

Find out what SIB is all about and meet other IB majors!!

Email [email protected] or 333-3044

**Rain Location: 3rd floor Levis**

(912 W Illinois)


Next lecture: Humans, Climate Change, and Ecological Responses


Assignment

Responses to Climate Change:

Lecture Outline: print, read, bring…

Learn…

1) 5 major concepts

2) 6 levels of ecological organization

(see 1.1 also)

3) contrast acclimation vs adaptation

Pg. 146-7 in text

Midwest Climate


Ch 4 Variation in the Physical Environment


OBJECTIVES: What creates variation in climate and how does it explain the diversity and distribution of biomes?

  • Build a model for proximal causes of global variation in climate and biomes

  • How do features of the earth contribute to climatic variation?

  • What are causes of temporal changes in climate and biomes?

  • What are local effects on climate?


***What are 5 features of earth that affect climate?


***PRE-TEST: What feature of the earth causes:

1) Daily rhythm of dark and light?

2) Temperature warmer at 0º than 90 º?

3) Seasonal change in climate?

4) Less variation in temperature in

N than S?

5) Winds to be diverted from N-S direction?

Rotates on axis

B) Round

C) Tilt of 23º on axis

D) Rotates around sun

E) More land mass in N than S


Answers:

1) Daily rhythm of dark and light? = A

2) Temperature warmer at 0º than 90 º? = B

3) Seasonal change in climate? = C + D

4) Less variation in temperature in

N than S? = E

5) Winds to be diverted from N-S direction?

= A + B

  • Rotates on axis

    B) Round

    C) Tilt of 23º on axis

    D) Rotates around sun

    E) More land mass in N than S


Overall conceptual model:

Solar radiation 

temperature 

wind and ocean currents 

precipitation


***Why does temperature decline at higher latitudes?


***What accounts for differences in range of temperatures in N vs S hemisphere?

N.B. Specific heat is higher for water than land.


***What causes seasons and temporal variation in temperature?


Variation in temperature generates winds.(N.B. Mirrror of S and N hemispheres)

Winds drive ocean currents and redistribute heat and moisture.


***What are latitudes of tropical rainforests and deserts? Why?


Why is it wet at 0° and dry at 30°?Hadley cells and ITCZ (inter-tropical convergence zone):


Solar equator (ITCZ) moves seasonally.

(so do belts of temp., wind, and rain)--->

causes seasonal variation in climate.


What causes deflections in air flow from N-S? Coreolis effect ; affects oceans too!


Ocean currents 1) differ in N and S, 2) redistribute heat and moisture and 3) affect

marine environment on global scale

climates on land.

clockwise

counter-

clockwise

upwelling


Upwelling currents bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface --->support high productivity.


***Why are (most) deserts on W side of continents? What causes the Gobi desert in central Asia?Why does England have temperature deciduous forest rather than boreal forest?


Overall conceptual model:

Solar radiation 

temperature 

wind and ocean currents 

precipitation


***What factors have changed existence and location of biomes through time?

  • Continental drift

  • Mountain building and rain shadows

  • Changes in orbit, tilt, wobble of earth

  • Climate variation

  • past climate change

  • present climate change

  • Human alteration in land cover


Changes in biomes

through geological

time…


El Nino vs. El Nina: note recent increase

in stength + frequency of El Nino


La Nina…


World-wide variation in effects of El Nino on

climate


El Nino years bring drought and fire to tropical

peat forests in SE Asia


Negative impact of

El Nino on crops

In far-flung places


***What determines local climate?

  • 1) Proximity to bodies of water

  • Continentalclimates in interiors

    More arid

    More variable

  • Maritime climates on coasts

    Less arid

    Less variable


2) Topography: gradients in mountains

  • Air cools as rises---> temp. decrease-->vegetation changes

  • (6-10°C drop for every 1000 m in elevation)


Why do mountains cause a rainshadow on their leeward side? How do they affect biomes?

How do mountain and wind directions affect this?


***Topographysuperimposes local variation on general climatic patterns. What causes these vegetation patterns?


Higher temperatures on S than N-facing slopes; >T --> > evaporation + < soil moisture


OBJECTIVE: What creates variation in climate and how does it explain the diversity and distribution of biomes?

  • Build a model for proximal causes of global variation in climate and biomes

  • What features of the earth contribute to climatic variation?

  • What are causes of temporal changes in climate and biomes?

  • What are local effects on climate?


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