Indonesia
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Indonesia. An IT Profile. MIS 680 Fall 2004 Rick Fenster Steve Dudas Marty Gagnier Carolyn Moroz. The People. Over 238 million people in 2004 (4 th largest country in the world) 1.5% annual population growth rate Median age is approximately 26 Life expectancy around 70 years

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Indonesia

Indonesia

An IT Profile

MIS 680 Fall 2004

Rick Fenster

Steve Dudas

Marty Gagnier

Carolyn Moroz


The people

The People

  • Over 238 million people in 2004 (4th largest country in the world)

  • 1.5% annual population growth rate

  • Median age is approximately 26

  • Life expectancy around 70 years

  • Age Structure

    • 29.4% 0-14yrs

    • 65.5% 15-64

    • 5.1% 65 and over


Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups

  • Javanese people 45%

  • Sudanese people 14%

  • Madurese people 7.5%

  • Costal Malays 7.5%

  • Other 26% (many small groups)

  • No indication that ethnicity issues would impact the IT investment decision


Religious groups

Religious Groups

  • Islamic 87% (worlds largest Islamic nation)

  • Protestant 6%

  • Catholic 3%

  • Hindu 2%

  • Buddhist & Other 2%

  • Does the religious make-up affect the potential for IT investment?


Languages

Languages

  • 583 languages and dialects spoken

  • Bahasa Indonesian is the official language

  • English

  • Dutch

  • Local dialects (most widely spoken is Javanese)

  • Although Bahasa Indonesia has become the official language, local languages and dialects continue to be spoken and will not be abolished

  • However the common use of Bahasa Indonesian has helped unify the country since independence in 1949


Geography

Geography

  • Located in Southeastern Asia

  • Archipelago between the Indian ocean and Pacific ocean

  • Close to 2 million square miles in area (almost 3 times the size of Texas)

  • Comprised of 5 main islands (Sumatra, Java/Madura, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya) and 17,000 smaller islands

  • Population highly concentrated in these main islands

  • Capital city is Jakarta

  • Bridges 2 continents, Asia and Australia


Geography1

Geography

Indonesia

CIA Factbook


History

History

  • Early inhabitants were primarily Indian from Southeast India who adopted the Hindu religion

  • Spread of Islam began to take root in the 13th century and culminated with the capture of the capital city (Jaya Karta) in 1527

  • Dutch merchants in quest for spices arrive in 1600’s and begin period of Dutch Colonialism

  • Dutch rule characterized by ruthless exploitation and monopolization of resources

  • Portuguese control Eastern part of Indonesia

  • Dutch repel numerous attempts to gain control of Indonesia, resulting in large casualties


History 2

History-2

  • Numerous revolts ensued between 1816-1908 against Dutch colonial rule

  • Nationalistic movements of a more organized nature took root in 1908 with the forming of the “Boedi Oetomo” (noble conduct).

  • Dutch embark on restricting Indonesia civil liberties further by eliminating freedom of assembly, speech and expression

  • Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI) formed in 1927 adopting a militant policy against Dutch colonialism

  • 1931-1940 characterized by the formation of many political parties demanding independence


History 3

History-3

  • Japanese occupation from WWII 1942-1945

  • Independence achieved August 17, 1945 with the formation of the Republic of Indonesia

  • Dutch formally surrender in 1949 and agree to withdrawal

  • Sovereign nation status achieved in 1950

  • 1950-1967 The Sukarno era characterized by political and economic disorder

  • President Suharto begins formation of New Order Government in 1967. Rules for 32 years as dictator.

  • 1999 – Fall of New Order and the removal of Suharto from power pave way for free elections


Government

Government

  • Republic of Indonesia (Unitary Multiparty Democratic Republic)

  • Elected People’s Consultative Assembly (Legislative body)

  • Current parties in House of Representatives:

    • Golkar Party: (21.6%) 128 seats (New Order party of the wealthy and upper-class)

    • PDI-P: (18.5%) 109 seats (Indonesian Democratic Party supported by nationalists and working class voters)

    • PPP Party: (8.2%) 58 seats (Moslem supported)

    • PD Party: (7.5%) 57 seats (working class, social-democratic)

    • PKB Party: (10.6%) 52 seats (Moslem supported)

    • PAN Party: (6.4%) 52 seats (Urban middle-class)

    • PKS Party: (7.3%) 45 seats (Moslem puritans)

      Note: Due to election rules, the number of seats won does not always correspond to the number of votes received.


Government1

Government

3 different leaders between 1998 and 2004

1950

1967

1998

2004

1949

First Free Elections

Independence

The Sukarno era

New Order Gov’t of Suharto

End of Suharto Dictatorship

Almost 55 years after Independence is declared from the Dutch before the first truly democratic free elections are held.


Politics

Politics

  • World’s third largest democracy

    (http://news.inq7.net/world/index.php?index=1&story_id=12539)

  • Sept 20, 2004 elections could see 4th leader since Suharto was ousted in 1998

    • President Megawati Sukarnoputri, incumbent

    • Retired General Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

  • Official results available October 5

  • Predictions:

    • General Yudhoyono won by a “landslide” (60% to 39%)

      (http://news.inq7.net/world/index.php?index=1&story_id=12539)

    • 80% voter turnout (122 million people)

      (http://news.inq7.net/world/index.php?index=1&story_id=12539)


Natural resources

Natural Resources

  • Petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver.

  • Agriculture products:Rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs


Economy

Economy

  • Economy not good, but is improving

GDP shown as purchasing power parity (in billions)


Economy1

Economy


Economy2

Economy

GDP Per Capita shown as purchasing power parity


Economy3

Economy


Economy4

Economy


Economy5

Economy

  • Economic Aid: $43 billion

    • Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004. (2003 est.)

      Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html


Business culture

Business & Culture

  • Indonesia is a very stratified and hierarchical society

  • Time is considered limitless and they view hurrying as a sign of impoliteness

  • Flexibility and patience are critical for success

  • Strong relationships are essential for business to succeed

  • Harmony is a major cultural value for achieving consensus

  • Aggressiveness and conflict are avoided at all costs

  • Embarrassment is also avoided thus only positive information is passed on to superiors

  • Government widely involved in business affairs

  • Chinese dominate much of Indonesian business


Education

Education

  • Literacy - 92.5% of Males / 83.4% Females are Literate

    • http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html

  • System Overhauled in 1989

    • Compulsory Education Increases from 6 to 9 Years

    • Right to an Education For All

    • Decentralization of the Curriculum

    • http://www.worldedreform.com/intercon/kedre9.htm

  • 2001 - 220,000 Schools Transferred to Local Govts.

  • Significant (>US $1Billion) Internal Funding Increases in 2001/2002

    • http://www.thejakartapost.com/special/os_21.asp

  • Next Generation at Risk Due to Economic Crisis

    • Millions of “economic-orphans” and 2.5 Million Drop-Outs

      • http://www.unicef.org/sowc00/panel2.htm

  • USAID – $700 Million in Contributions Targeted Primarily at Education

  • Currently Approx. 5000 Native Graduates in IT Annually


Education1

Education

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Indonesia.


Challenges

Challenges

  • Alleviating widespread poverty (In 1999, 27% of population lived below the poverty line)

    •Terrorism (Bali / Jarkarta Embassy)

    •Transition from authoritarianism to elected governments

    •Banking sector reforms

    •Cronyism and corruption

    •Human rights violations by military and police

  • Electricity

    • Only 60.5 percent of the population on the islands of Java and Bali have electricity, and only 44.6 percent in other regions of Indonesia


It telecommunications

IT-Telecommunications

  • Fixed line teledensity is 4%, one of lowest in the region. Cellular teledensity is 10% and growing fast.

  • Country has a poor telecommunications infrastructure. Why?

    1. Challenges due to geography (see map)

    • More than ½ of 70,000 villages have no public telephones.

      2. Lack of funding.

    • Joint Operating Service hit hard by Asian economic crisis.

    • $330 million (US) to raise teledensity 1%. (www.worldbank.org)

      3. Overregulation and Monopolies.

    • Telkom provided domestic services, Indostat and Satelindo provide international.

    • Lack of competition has resulted in high rates, slow growth.

    • Recent deregulation and privatization to increase competition.


It internet growth

IT – Internet Growth

Source: Indonesia Internet Service Provider Association (APJII)


It internet usage

IT – Internet Usage

  • Top 25 worldwide in terms of number of Internet users.

  • But less than 5% penetration – one of lowest in Asia.

    • poor infrastructure, low PC ownership, high ISP charges

  • Access: kiosks (43%), offices (41%), homes (12%), schools/universities (4%) (source: APJII)

  • 90 operational ISP’s, 10 of which own 80% market share. Largest is the state owned TELKOM.

  • Access is slow dial-up – broadband is too expensive or simply not available.

  • Most use for chat and email -- few citizen services (e-government, e-health, e-education)


It warnet cyber caf s

IT – Warnet (Cyber Cafés)

  • Extension of the Wartel model – Telephone Cafes

  • ~ 4,000 public kiosks (1/2 in Jakarta).

  • Average of 8 PC’s, almost all use dial-up service.

  • Most users are young, many located near colleges.

  • Access is ~ $1(US) per hour

  • Is this the answer to Indonesia’s large digital divide?

    • Overcomes issues related to low PC ownership, lack of connectivity, and high ISP costs.

    • But limited to where adequate infrastructure already exists.

    • And competition is tough, and many struggle to be profitable.


It internet programs

IT - Internet Programs

  • Government policy: Let competition play out in commercial regions, but assist other regions.

    • But government has had trouble providing adequate financing.

  • USO

    • Provide telephony to 43,000 villages by end of 2005

    • Sometimes a single public phone per village.

    • Funded with 0.75% telephone usage tax

  • School 2000

    • Provide Internet access to 2,000 schools per year.

  • OSOL

    • “One School, One Computer Lab”


It e commerce use

IT – e-Commerce Use

  • Large potential -- Internet users growing fast!

  • Only 5% use Internet for shopping (APJII, 2002)

  • Global reputation for credit card fraud results in many international sites boycotting Indonesian orders/deliveries.

  • Other barriers to e-commerce use:

    • Low Internet usage

    • Low credit card use

    • Culture – Shopping is considered an act of leisure or recreation.

    • Delivery costs to rural areas


It e commerce development

IT – e-Commerce Development

  • Hundreds of commercial sites, few making any money – high operational costs, low advertising revenue, poorly skilled human resources.

  • Many dot.com start ups failed during the NASDAQ crash in 2001.

  • New generation focus on mobile phone business and tourism.

  • Barriers to e-commerce development:

    • Government regulation

    • Banks won’t secure Internet transactions

    • Weak infrastructure


Foreign it investment

Foreign IT Investment

  • Intel – 5 Employees / Opened in 1996

  • IBM – Initial Presence in 1937.

    • Formally Incorporated as PT IBM Indonesia in 1999.

  • Hardware Manufactures

    • MAG Innovision – Computer Monitors

    • Sony – Closed Audio Component Factory due to Wage Hikes


It economy

IT - Economy

  • 65% of PCs Sold are Locally Assembled

    • Top 6 PC Sellers Account for 32% of Sales

      • http://strategis.gc.ca/epic/internet/inimr-ri.nsf/en/gr121741e.html

  • Little Software Development

    • Very Little Done due to Piracy and IP Issues

      • Y2000 - Exports of Approx. US$30 Million using 4500 software engineers in roughly 90 companies

      • Office XP Costs about $4 US on Streets

      • http://www.ejisdc.org

  • Pilot Project to make Bandung a “High Tech Valley”

    • Located Close to the Largest Number of “IT” Capable Universities.


It workforce

IT Workforce

  • Limited IT Experience (Low Internet Usage)

  • Significant Freedom Granted to Workers in 1998

    • 2001/2002 – Back to Back Minimum Wage Increases of 30% and 39% in Jakarta

http://www.ecatt.com/country/indonesia/inhalt_id.htm


It govt policy and regulation

IT - Govt. Policy and Regulation

  • Intellectual Property Problems

    • Software Piracy Estimated at +80%

    • Enforcement / Punishment is Rare

  • Heavy Regulation of Telecommunication Industry

  • Legal System has a History of Corruption

  • Loose Bankruptcy Laws


Comparison the philippines and indonesia

Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

  • Much smaller in size and population

    • slightly larger than Arizona (3 times the size of Texas)

    • 86 million people (238 million)

  • Speak two languages, Filipino and English (583 languages)

  • Not as severely impacted by Asian financial crisis

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_financial_crisis

  • In 2001, 40% of population lived below the poverty line (compared to 27% in 1999 for Indonesia)

  • Higher unemployment rate estimate for 2003 of 11.4% (8.7% in 2003)

  • 2003 GDP (est):

    • Purchasing power parity $390.7 billion ($758.1 billion)

    • Real Growth Rate 4.5% (4.0%)

    • Per capita: purchasing power parity $4,600 ($3,200)


  • Comparison the philippines and indonesia1

    Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

    • Strength comes from cultural affinity with U.S

      • Highly westernized

      • 3rd Largest English speaking country

      • Safety net to larger locations political tensions

        • India

        • Russia


    Comparison the philippines and indonesia2

    Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

    • Ports and Harbors:


    Comparison the philippines and indonesia3

    Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

    • Telecommunications

      • Philippines

        • 78 private telephone companies in the Philippines

        • 40 lines per 1000 people

        • 4 million Internet users, approx. 46 per 1000 (end of 2002)

      • Indonesia

        • 1 private and 2 stated owned in Indonesia

        • 33 lines per 1000 (2002)

        • 8 million Internet users, approx. 33 per 1000 (2002)

          Source: CIA Factbook and www.american.edu


    Comparison the philippines and indonesia4

    Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

    • Cell Phone vs. Land Lines

      • 3 million land lines in use in 2002, compared to 15 million cell phones

      • 7.75 million land lines in use in 2002, compared to 11.7 million cell phones

        Source: CIA Factbook


    Comparison the philippines and indonesia5

    Comparison: The Philippines and Indonesia

    • Number of ISPs (2000):

      • Philippines: 33 Internet Service Providers

      • Indonesia: 24 Internet Service Providers


    Analysis summary

    Analysis / Summary

    • Is Indonesia a Good Investment for IT?

      Maybe


    Analysis summary1

    Analysis / Summary


    Predictions

    Predictions

    Source: Global Information Technology and Electronic Commerce, Palvia/Palvia/Roche


    Some indonesia websites

    Some Indonesia Websites

    • News Portal: www.detik.com and www.indocenter.com

    • Newspapers: www.kompas.com and www.jawapos.co.id

    • Internet Banking: www.bankbii.com

    • Retail: www.plazaindonesia.com

    • Travel: www.indo.com


    Links

    Links

    http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html

    http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/indonesia/about_indonesia.htm

    http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/Indonesi_Economy.asp

    http://abc.net.au/ra/federasi/tema6/pol_parties_indon.htm

    http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/

    http://www.aiccusa.org/cultas.htm

    http://www.gimonca.com/sejarah/sejarah09.shtml

    http://www.bps.go.id/sector/population/table1.shtml


    Indonesia

    Questions and Comments?


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