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Research Methodology ASR702. By Reaz Uddin , Ph. D. Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi. Course Contents. Public Safety (Dr. Raza Shah) (2 classes)

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Research Methodology ASR702

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Research methodology asr702

Research Methodology ASR702

By

Reaz Uddin, Ph. D.

Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research,

International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences,

University of Karachi


Course contents

Course Contents

  • Public Safety (Dr. Raza Shah) (2 classes)

  • Lab Safety (Dr. Raza Shah) (2 classes)

  • Environment conservations (Dr. Raza Shah) (2 classes)

  • Scientific Record Keeping (Dr. HinaSiddiqui) (2 classes)

  • Handling of Research Material (Dr. HinaSiddiqui) (2 classes)

  • Research Misconduct (Dr. HinaSiddiqui) (2 classes)

  • Critical Evaluation of Research (Dr. HinaSiddiqui) (2 classes)

  • Ownership of Data (Dr. HinaSiddiqui) (2 classes)

  • Research Ethics (Dr. Reaz Uddin) (2 classes)

  • Scientific Integrity (Dr. Reaz Uddin) (2 classes)

  • Effective use of computers and internet (Dr. Reaz Uddin) (2 classes)

  • Publication (Dr. Reaz Uddin) (2 classes)

  • Communication of Science (Dr. Reaz Uddin) (2 classes)

  • Students Presentations (Dr. HinaSiddiqui and Dr. Reaz) (10 classes)

  • Biostatistics (Mr. YaseenMenai) (9 classes)


Internet usage for academic purposes

Internet Usage for Academic Purposes


Strengths of the internet for academic work

Strengths of the Internet for Academic Work

The Internet offers

  • currency of information.

  • information in a variety of media (text, graphics, video, and audio).

  • access to resources that many would not otherwise have an opportunity to use through digital collections.

  • access not limited by distance or time.


Weaknesses of the internet for academic work

Weaknesses of the Internet for Academic Work

  • Few centralized information filters relative to the amount of information available

  • No explicit editorial review policies to analyze content and verify factual information

  • Less social and professional pressure to ensure accuracy

  • No regulatory policy concerning Web-based information

  • Ease of electronic sabotage and content alteration

  • Many Web sites do not have established reputations that can aid users in assessing the sites’ veracity.

  • Merging of advertising and information

  • Professional-quality Web sites are easy to create and can appear credible, even when they are not.

M.J. Metzger et al. (2003) College student Web use, perceptions of information credibility, and verification behavior. Computers & Education.


Student s academic uses of the internet

Student’s Academic Uses of the Internet

  • Used primarily to

    • communicate with their professors

    • do research/get information

    • view course Web sites

    • contact other students

    • carry on email discussions with classmates

    • obtain grade information

    • complete and check homework assignments

  • 79% of college students feel the Internet has had a positive impact on their academic experience.

Pew Center (2002); M.J. Metzger et al. (2003) College student Web use, perceptions of information credibility, and verification behavior. Computers & Education.


Impact of internet on academic skills

Impact of Internet on Academic Skills

  • Has the Internet made college students

    • Lazy?

    • Procrastinating?

    • Plagiarizing?

  • Has the Internet corrupted research skills?

  • Do they take the path of least resistance?

  • Are they information illiterate?


An information literate individual

An Information Literate Individual

  • Determine the extent of information needed.

  • Access the needed information effectively and efficiently.

  • Evaluate information and its sources critically

  • Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base.

  • Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.

  • Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally.

Is able to...

The Association of College and Research Libraries’ Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education


How do students use the web for research

How do students use the Web for research?

Two major sources

  • Web resources – free via the WWW

  • Online library resources – including full-text journal articles from library data bases

    First choice: commercial search engines and web portals (e.g., Google, MSN, AOL, Yahoo!)


How do students find new websites

How do students find new websites?

Ranked in order of importance:

  • search engines

  • surfing

  • using a directory

  • reading about sites

  • help from classmates

  • assistance from library staff


How do students rate themselves

How do students rate themselves?

  • 3/4 agree completely that they are successful at finding the information they need.

  • Nearly 2/3 strongly agree they know best what information to accept from the Web.


Can students evaluate information on the web

Can students evaluate information on the Web?

  • Many are much more willing to use a web-based resource than a paper resource, even if the paper resource is more complete.


How do students view the web

How do students view the web?

  • As a convenience that may not necessarily improve the quality of their work.

  • Most helpful for increasing the number of sources available.

  • Next was the Internet’s ability to save time.

  • Behind this was its importance in improving their grades.

  • Finally, its usefulness for improving the quality of their work.

M.J. Metzger et al. (2003) College student Web use, perceptions of information credibility, and verification behavior. Computers & Education.


Students email with professors

Students email with professors

  • to set up appointments with professors

  • to discuss grades

  • to get clarification of an assignment

Pew Internet & American Life Project (2005) The Internet goes to college


Research methodology asr702

“If college students are being seducedby the instant access to and seemingly endless supply of information on the Web, faculty need to get involved to counteract the power of the Internet.”

(Thompson, C. (2003) Information illiterate or lazy: How college students use the Web for research. Libraries and the Academy, Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 264.)


Internet and plagiarism

Internet and Plagiarism

  • With just a click of a mouse and a credit card number, students can download plagiarized material.

  • Free online access to books and journals allows students to “cut and paste.”

  • key signs of plagiarism:

    • a students writing suddenly becomes significantly better.

    • words or language is contrary from what they learned in class.

    • a student's paper is good, but off the topic.


Internet and plagiarism1

Internet and Plagiarism

  • Has plagiarism increased in your students’ work since the Internet’s spread?

    • Yes - 44%

    • No - 23%

    • Undecided - 33%

  • Do you use the Internet to check for plagiarism?

    • Yes - 74%

    • No - 26%

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project (2005)


Internet cutting and pasting

Internet Cutting and Pasting

  • ‘Cut & paste' plagiarism - using a sentence or two (or more) from different sources on the Internet in a paper without appropriate citation

  • Absence of clear direction from faculty

  • 10% of students admitted to cutting and pasting in 1999, almost 40% in 2002.

  • A majority of students (77%) believe such cheating is not a very serious issue.

McCabe, D. (2005) Levels Of Cheating And Plagiarism Remain High. The Center for Academic Integrity


The impact of the internet on students

The Impact of the Internet on Students

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly


Today s college students

Today’s College Students

  • “Spam” and “cookies” are not necessarily foods.

  • “Ctrl + Alt + Del” is as basic as “ABC.”

  • They have never been able to find the “return” key.

  • Computers have always fit in their backpacks.

  • They have never gotten excited over a telegram, a long distance call, or a fax.

  • Computers have always suffered from viruses.

  • They have done most of their search for the right college online.

  • They don't remember when "cut and paste" involved scissors.

From Beloit College Mindset Lists


Net gen information processing

Net Gen Information Processing

  • “Hypertext minds” - they leap around.

  • A linear thought process is much less common than the ability to piece information together from multiple sources.

  • Ability to read visual images

  • Visual-spatial skills

  • Inductive discovery

  • Fast response time

Oblinger, D. & J. (2005) Is It Age or IT: First Steps Toward Understanding the Net Generation. EDUCAUSE .


Characteristics of the net gen

Characteristics of the Net Gen

  • Digitally Literate

  • Connected

  • Immediate

  • Experiential

  • Social

  • Teams

  • Structure

  • Engagement and Experience

  • Visual and Kinesthetic

Oblinger, D. & J. (2005) Is It Age or IT: First Steps Toward Understanding the Net Generation. EDUCAUSE .


Characteristics of the net gen1

Characteristics of the Net Gen

  • Are more comfortable composing documents online than longhand.

  • Have turned "remembering" (phone numbers, meetings, etc.) over to a technology device.

  • Are constantly connected. The Internet always on. Cell phone is always there.

  • Can effectively engage in many different activities at one time.

  • Play video or computer games.

Oblinger, D. & J. (2005) Is It Age or IT: First Steps Toward Understanding the Net Generation. EDUCAUSE .


Students use the internet most often to

Students use the Internet most often to

  • Communicate socially

  • Engage in work for classes

  • Be entertained

  • Communicate professionally

Pew Internet & American Life Project (2005) The Internet goes to college


Internet as mail pigeon a social technology

Internet as Mail Pigeon: a Social Technology

  • Integrated into their daily communication habits.

  • Majority more likely to use the phone than the Internet to communicate socially.

  • Majority consider the Internet to be an easy and convenient choice for communicating with friends.

  • Cell phone use while being online is prevalent.

  • check email at least once a day.

  • use at least two email addresses.

  • use Instant Messaging (IM).

  • use the Internet primarily to communicate

  • socially.

  • forward messages to friends or family (most popular online social activity).

Pew Internet & American Life Project (2005) The Internet goes to college


Gullibility virus spreading over the internet

Gullibility Virus Spreading over the Internet!

Symptoms

  • The willingness to believe improbable stories without thinking.

  • The urge to forward multiple copies of such stories to others.

  • A lack of desire to take three minutes to check to see if a story is true.


Internet as library

Internet as Library

  • 73% use the Internet more than the library.

  • Only 9% use the library more than the Internet.

  • Time spent in the library has decreased.

  • Library use has increased with online access to materials.


Job search resource

Job Search Resource

  • The Internet earned the highest marks as "very valuable" from more than 40 percent of respondents.

  • Career web sites were highly rated by about a fifth of graduating students.

  • Job postings on career center web sites were a frequently-used resource.

http://www.jobweb.com/resources/library/Salary_and_Benefits/Time_to_Think_A_279_1.htm


Internet as amusement park

Internet as Amusement Park

  • Only 10% use the Internet primarily for entertainment.

  • 78% have gone online just to browse for fun, compared to 64% of all Internet users.

  • 60% have downloaded music files compared to 28% of the overall population.

  • Gaming is virtually a commonplace.


Gaming and students

Gaming and Students

  • Computer, video and online games are woven into the fabric of everyday life.

    • a social/socializing activity

    • integrate gaming into their day

  • Most associate positive feelings with gaming

    • “pleasant” (36%)

    • “exciting” (34%)

    • “challenging” (45%)

  • Fewer reported gaming made them feel

    • frustrated (12%)

    • bored (11%)

    • stressed (6%)

Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2003). Let the games begin.


Controversial internet use

Controversial Internet Use


Controversial web sites

Controversial Web Sites

  • racist sites

  • weapons sites

  • drug sites

  • term paper sites

  • pirating (copying software illegally) sites

  • fake ID sites (fake identification)

  • gambling sites


Pirating

Pirating

  • using Internet sites to pirate (illegally copy) software.

  • using the university’s computers to download the pirated software.

Rumbough, T. (2001). Controversial Uses of the Internet by College Students, Educause.


Internet addiction is it real

Internet Addiction:Is it Real?


Opinions about internet addiction

Opinions about Internet Addiction

  • little more than a medium to fuel other addictions

  • simply a manifestation of an underlying mental health problem or even an artificial product of mental health professionals to increase clientele

  • disorder with parallel symptoms of other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders defined criteria such as pathological gambling or substance abuse

  • “Might simply represent a “fashionable jargon” engaged in naming “anything passionate or any desire to repeat a rewarding activity as being ‘addicted’ or ‘hooked’”

  • (Kaltiala-Heino, Lintonen, & Rimpela, 2004)


Internet addiction survey

Internet Addiction Survey

  • Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet (think about previous online activity or anticipate next online session)?

  • Do you feel the need to use the Internet with increasing amounts of time to achieve satisfaction?

  • Have you repeatedly made unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop Internet use?

  • Do you feel restless, moody, depressed, or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop Internet use?

Young, K.S. (2004). Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences. American Behavioral Scientist 48 (4).


Internet addiction survey1

Internet Addiction Survey

  • Do you stay online longer than originally intended?

  • Have you jeopardized or risked the loss of a significant relationship, job, educational or career opportunity because of the Internet?

  • Have you lied to family members, therapists, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet?

  • Do you use the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or of relieving a dysphoric mood (e.g. feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, depression)?

Young, K.S. (2004). Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences. American Behavioral Scientist 48 (4).


What is it

What is it?

  • The Internet can cause problems, but is it

    • Addiction

    • Disorder (Internet Addiction Disorder – IAD)

    • Compulsion

    • Abuse

    • Dependency

    • Misuse

    • Pathological Internet Use (PIU)?

  • Too little valid and reliable data

    • Self-report surveys

    • Often online studies

    • Poor sampling


Learner instructor interaction in an online environment

Learner-Instructor Interaction in an Online Environment

More than “glorified correspondence courses”


Ramifications of the interactive potential of online education

Ramifications of the Interactive Potential of Online Education

  • Blurs the line between distance education and traditional, place-based education:

    • Discussion

    • Collaboration

    • Potential for building a sense of community among participants

  • Allows more give and take between learners and the organization

  • Provides access to peers creating a network of scholars

    • intellectual exchange

    • collective thinking

    • collaborative endeavors

    • socialization

Mason, R., & Kaye, A.R. Toward a new paradigm for distance education. In L. M. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a new environment. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1990.


Advantages of online education

Advantages of Online Education

The result of three characteristics:

  • asynchronicity

  • efficient information access

  • increased social distance

McComb, M. (1993) Augmenting a group discussion course with computer-mediated communication in a small college setting. Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 1(3).


Potential negative impacts of online education

Potential Negative Impacts of Online Education

  • asynchronous nature takes some getting used to

  • more easily procrastinate in reading and/or writing

  • Sheer bulk of messages can be overwhelming.

  • Text-based makes it more cumbersome; takes more time than F2F requiring extra work or covering less content.

  • less responsive than face-to-face, potentially inhibiting expression and eliminating non-verbal communication

  • Some participants may be hesitant to commit their ideas, experiences, and feelings to print. Yet, more students respond, responses are longer and more complex, and interactions are increased in online education when compared to F2F

McDonald, J. (2002) Is ‘as good as face-to-face” as good as it gets? JALN Volume 6, Issue 2 - August 2002


Categories of quality learner instructor interaction

Categories of Quality Learner-Instructor Interaction

  • directing learning

  • providing performance feedback

  • promoting content understanding

  • creating structure

  • supporting learning

Miner, R.C. (2003) A framework for learner-instructor interaction in the online, distance education environment. The University of Oklahoma


Directing learning

Directing Learning

  • Focus students’ learning efforts.

  • Keep students’ efforts on track.

  • Link students to useful resources.

Miner, R.C. (2003) A framework for learner-instructor interaction in the online, distance education environment. The University of Oklahoma


Providing performance feedback

Providing Performance Feedback

  • Provide specific and constructive feedback.

  • Personalize the feedback.

  • Avoid too much feedback.

Miner, R.C. (2003) A framework for learner-instructor interaction in the online, distance education environment. The University of Oklahoma


Promoting content understanding

Promoting Content Understanding

  • Teaching by the instructor.

  • Using effective instructional strategies.

  • Promoting understanding interaction dependent upon various online conditions.

    • novice or expert with respect to the content

    • deep or shallow learning

Miner, R.C. (2003) A framework for learner-instructor interaction in the online, distance education environment. The University of Oklahoma


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