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When you are done…. Write a well developed paragraph describing why World War One began. (use Ch. 26.1). 1914-1918: The World at War. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY. Warm Up. Use your textbook to describe the four MAIN causes of World War one.

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When you are done…

Write a well developed paragraph describing why World War One began. (use Ch. 26.1)


1914-1918:The Worldat War

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Chappaqua, NY


Warm Up

Use your textbook to describe the four MAIN causes of World War one.

What was the “spark” that started the war?


“WWI”

Chapter 26.1-2,4


I. Causes of the War

  • Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism


Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.


Nationalism


Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe


  • The “Spark”

    • Assassination

      • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir of A-H, was visiting Bosnia


Map showing the Archduke’s journey through Sarajevo


The Assassination: Sarajevo


  • Serbian rebel Gavrilo Princip, shot him and his wife

GavriloPrincip


  • July Crisis

    • A-H issues impossible demands to Serbia

    • Germany gives A-H a “blank check”- help them if war comes

    • Russia mobilized military to defend Serbia

  • France, Germany, GB mobilize- alliances


Who’s To Blame?


  • Alliance System

    • Triple Alliance (Central Powers)

      • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

      • Later: Ottoman Empire

    • Triple Entente (Allied Powers)

      • Great Britain, France, Russia

      • Later: Italy, United States


The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

Germany

Great Britain

France

Austria-Hungary

Russia

Italy


Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:


Europe in 1914


The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]


As you look at these cartoons, write:

How do you think early soldiers felt about going to war?

What do you think they thought about their enemies?

How do you think their feelings will change once they start fighting?


German Atrocities in Belgium


Recruitment Posters


Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians


New French Recruits


A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier


For Recruitment


Munitions Workers


Posters:WartimePropaganda


Australian Poster


American Poster


Financing the War


German Poster

Think of Your Children!


As you look at these cartoons, write:

How do you think early soldiers felt about going to war?

What do you think they thought about their enemies?

How do you think their feelings changed once they started fighting?


Warm Up

  • Why does was WWI so significant? What were important outcomes of the war?


Warm Up Poems

  • What is the poem about?

  • What sort of imagery is in it?

  • Describe the poets thoughts and feelings.


Europe in 1914


II. The Western Front

  • Schlieffen Plan- German War Plan

    • First, take Paris quickly- France surrender

    • Second, attack Russia


Germany pushed into France but failed to take Paris

Allies pushed Germans back, Germans dug trenches


Trench warfare- fighting from trenches with very little movement back and forth


Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”


Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.

  • Each side had over 300,000 casualties.


The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.

  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.


War IsHELL !!


Sacrifices in War


  • New Weapons: Machine guns, Barbed wire, Mass artillery


FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers


Turned into a war of attrition- goal is not to defeat the enemy, just wear them down

Total war- all of a nation’s resources are used for war


French Women Factory Workers


German Women Factory Workers


  • Stalemate leads to new methods in weapons: Poison gas, Airplanes, Tanks


The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.


The Zeppelin


British Tank at Ypres


Conclusion

  • Tell your partner three ways this war was different from all wars that came before.


Warm Up

  • Where was most of the fighting in WWI? Why is it called a world war?

  • How did the Allied powers win?

  • What was one consequence of the war?


II. Other Fronts

  • Submarines- German u-boats attacked British shipping


Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats


  • “world war”- most fighting in Europe but because of imperialism, fighting all over the world


Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners


Fighting in Africa

3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade


Fighting in Salonika, Greece

French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916


A Young Australian Recruit


The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915


A Multi-Front War


  • Russia invaded the Central Powers- disastrous failure

The Tsar with General Brusilov


  • Arab uprising against the Ottomans, aided by British


  • Armenian Genocide- Armenian minority was removed from Ottoman Empire- 600,000 died


Turkish Genocide Against Armenians


IV. End of War

  • America Joins the War

    • America was neutral but sold munitions to the Allied powers

    • German U-boats sank boats with Americans including The Lusitania


  • Zimmerman Telegram- Germans offered part of US to Mexico if it attacked the US

  • America joined the Allies in 1917


The YanksAre Coming!


Americans in the Trenches


  • Russia left the war in 1917 (Revolution!) so Germany made a new offensive on the Western front

  • Allies, helped by Americans, stopped German offensive


C. Armistice(truce) was signed Nov. 11, 1918


9,000,000 SoldiersDead


The Somme American Cemetery, France

116,516 Americans Died


World War I Casualties


V. Peace…

  • Differing Viewpoints

    • US: Wilson’s Fourteen Points- creation of int’l organization

    • France: severely punish Germany!

    • Italy: wanted land but ignored


  • Versailles Treaty (1919)

    • Germany given full responsibility of war, punished, de-armed

    • A-H and Ottoman empires dismantled


  • League of Nations

    • Int’l peace organization

    • No enforcement power

    • US, Germany not members!


  • Other results

    • Spanish Influenza- disease spread from returning soldiers, ~50 million died

    • Economic chaos and political unrest

    • Independence movement in colonies


  • Women’s suffrage


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