Psychology of prejudice and discrimination
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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Chapter 4-7 Review. Chapter 4-7 Review. Stereotype __________ is the extent to which a stereotype is accessible in one’s mind. application knowledge activation assessment. Chapter 4-7 Review.

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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

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Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Chapter 4-7 Review


Chapter 4 7 review

Chapter 4-7 Review

Stereotype __________ is the extent to which a stereotype is accessible in one’s mind.

application

knowledge

activation

assessment


Chapter 4 7 review1

Chapter 4-7 Review

Stereotype __________ is the extent to which a stereotype is accessible in one’s mind.

application

knowledge

Activation

assessment

(p. 114)


Chapter 4 7 review2

Chapter 4-7 Review

The first step in the stereotype application process is __________.

assessment of stereotype content

categorizing a person as a member of a stereotyped group

prototyping a person

activation of the stereotype


Chapter 4 7 review3

Chapter 4-7 Review

The first step in the stereotype application process is __________.

assessment of stereotype content

categorizing a person as a member of a stereotyped group

prototyping a person

activation of the stereotype

(p. 115)


Chapter 4 7 review4

Chapter 4-7 Review

Compared to nonprejudiced people, racially prejudiced people

are less likely to engage in ingroup overexclusion.

categorize people by race more quickly.

make more categorization errors based on others’ gender.

are motivated to accurately classify other people on the basis of race.


Chapter 4 7 review5

Chapter 4-7 Review

Compared to nonprejudiced people, racially prejudiced people

are less likely to engage in ingroup overexclusion.

categorize people by race more quickly.

make more categorization errors based on others’ gender.

are motivated to accurately classify other people on the basis of race.

pp. 117-118


Chapter 4 7 review6

Chapter 4-7 Review

Which of the following has been demonstrated by research on stereotype activation?

Positive stereotypes are rarely activated.

Priming does not result in stereotype activation.

Stereotype activation is more likely when perceivers are cognitively busy.

Stereotype activation is more likely when people see a prototypical group member.


Chapter 4 7 review7

Chapter 4-7 Review

Which of the following has been demonstrated by research on stereotype activation?

Positive stereotypes are rarely activated.

Priming does not result in stereotype activation.

Stereotype activation is more likely when perceivers are cognitively busy.

Stereotype activation is more likely when people see a prototypical group member.

(pp. 120-122)


Chapter 4 7 review8

Chapter 4-7 Review

  • Klaus is motivated to maintain a positive self-image and because of this tends to see others in a negative light. Doing so fulfills a __________ goal.

    • self-enhancement

    • social adjustment

    • comprehension

    • ingroup overexclusion


Chapter 4 7 review9

Chapter 4-7 Review

  • Klaus is motivated to maintain a positive self-image and because of this tends to see others in a negative light. Doing so fulfills a __________ goal.

    • self-enhancement

    • social adjustment

    • comprehension

    • ingroup overexclusion

  • p. 127


  • Chapter 4 7 review10

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is a social adjustment motive?

      • the desire to avoid acting in a prejudiced manner

      • the need to understand why events happen

      • the need to see oneself in a positive light

      • the desire to follow the rules of behavior for a situation


    Chapter 4 7 review11

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is a social adjustment motive?

      • the desire to avoid acting in a prejudiced manner

      • the need to understand why events happen

      • the need to see oneself in a positive light

      • the desire to follow the rules of behavior for a situation

  • p. 127


  • Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    In situations where a stereotype has been activated, which of the following is true about stereotype application?

    • Perceivers can more successfully control their non-verbal reactions than their verbal reactions.

    • Motivated perceivers can always inhibit stereotype application.

    • Stereotype application is always a conscious process.

    • Stereotype application is inhibited only when the perceiver is motivated to do so.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    In situations where a stereotype has been activated, which of the following is true about stereotype application?

    • Perceivers can more successfully control their non-verbal reactions than their verbal reactions.

    • Motivated perceivers can always inhibit stereotype application.

    • Stereotype application is always a conscious process.

    • Stereotype application is inhibited only when the perceiver is motivated to do so.

      (p.130)


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Under what conditions are stereotypes likely to persist, even in the face of individuating information?

      • when new information about the other person confirms the perceiver’s original stereotypic beliefs

      • when the perceiver is motivated to be accurate

      • when the other person’s behavior is clearly stereotype disconfirming

      • when the perceiver has interacted with the other person many times


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Under what conditions are stereotypes likely to persist, even in the face of individuating information?

      • when new information about the other person confirms the perceiver’s original stereotypic beliefs

      • when the perceiver is motivated to be accurate

      • when the other person’s behavior is clearly stereotype disconfirming

      • when the perceiver has interacted with the other person many times

        (pp. 132-134)


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a component of modern racism?

      • denial of continuing discrimination

      • antagonism toward African Americans’ demands

      • overt expressions of prejudice

      • resentment over “special favors” given to African Americans


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a component of modern racism?

      • denial of continuing discrimination

      • antagonism toward African Americans’ demands

      • overt expressions of prejudice

      • resentment over “special favors” given to African Americans

        pp. 162-163


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following research findings illustrates the continuation of prejudice in today’s society?

      • Whites and Blacks are equally satisfied with how ethnic minorities are currently treated.

      • The majority of women in college have experienced sexist behavior.

      • Today’s Black college students often observe non-verbal discrimination, but rarely hear verbal expressions of prejudice.

      • The majority of Whites express a willingness to date a Black person.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following research findings illustrates the continuation of prejudice in today’s society?

      • Whites and Blacks are equally satisfied with how ethnic minorities are currently treated.

      • The majority of women in college have experienced sexist behavior.

      • Today’s Black college students often observe non-verbal discrimination, but rarely hear verbal expressions of prejudice.

      • The majority of Whites express a willingness to date a Black person.

    • pp. 165-166


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • A key tenet of the theory of symbolic prejudice is that anti-Black prejudice is based on

      • the belief that Black people are inherently inferior to White people.

      • beliefs about Blacks as an abstract group rather than from direct experiences with Black people.

      • a feeling of indifference toward Black people.

      • conflicting emotions about Black people.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • A key tenet of the theory of symbolic prejudice is that anti-Black prejudice is based on

      • the belief that Black people are inherently inferior to White people.

      • beliefs about Blacks as an abstract group rather than from direct experiences with Black people.

      • a feeling of indifference toward Black people.

      • conflicting emotions about Black people.

        p. 170


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • An individual who endorses the belief system of modern-symbolic prejudice is least likely to make which of the following statements?

      • If Blacks worked as hard as Whites and other minority groups, they could raise their standard of living.

      • Racial prejudice is a thing of the past.

      • Blacks get a larger share of the economic pie than they deserve.

      • Government programs favoring Blacks and other minorities are still needed to overcome race-based discrimination.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • An individual who endorses the belief system of modern-symbolic prejudice is least likely to make which of the following statements?

      • If Blacks worked as hard as Whites and other minority groups, they could raise their standard of living.

      • Racial prejudice is a thing of the past.

      • Blacks get a larger share of the economic pie than they deserve.

      • Government programs favoring Blacks and other minorities are still needed to overcome race-based discrimination.

        pp. 171-172


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which emotion is most likely experienced by people with modern-symbolic prejudice when interacting with members of minority groups?

      • anxiety

      • hate

      • hostility

      • liking


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which emotion is most likely experienced by people with modern-symbolic prejudice when interacting with members of minority groups?

      • anxiety

      • hate

      • hostility

      • liking

        p. 173


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • People with modern-symbolic prejudice

      • believe that all races endorse traditional American values.

      • believe that government intervention is necessary to ensure equality of outcomes.

      • support affirmative action programs as a remedy for past discrimination.

      • have little personal knowledge of Black people.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • People with modern-symbolic prejudice

      • believe that all races endorse traditional American values.

      • believe that government intervention is necessary to ensure equality of outcomes.

      • support affirmative action programs as a remedy for past discrimination.

      • have little personal knowledge of Black people.

        pp. 175-176


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ is the belief that government should ensure that everyone should receive an equal share of society’s resources.

      • Equality of opportunity

      • Equality of outcome

      • Group self-interest

      • Group privilege


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ is the belief that government should ensure that everyone should receive an equal share of society’s resources.

      • Equality of opportunity

      • Equality of outcome

      • Group self-interest

      • Group privilege

        p. 175


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Theodor Adorno and his colleagues hypothesized that the Holocaust could be explained by large numbers of people

      • accepting that if they did not cooperate with the genocide, they too would be killed.

      • believing that biology is destiny and the races needed to be purified.

      • being engaged in unthinking acceptance of authority.

      • believing that intergroup conflict could not be otherwise resolved.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Theodor Adorno and his colleagues hypothesized that the Holocaust could be explained by large numbers of people

      • accepting that if they did not cooperate with the genocide, they too would be killed.

      • believing that biology is destiny and the races needed to be purified.

      • being engaged in unthinking acceptance of authority.

      • believing that intergroup conflict could not be otherwise resolved.

        p. 210


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a pattern of thought characteristic of those with an authoritarian personality?

      • conventionalism

      • projectivity

      • flexibility

      • authoritarian submission


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a pattern of thought characteristic of those with an authoritarian personality?

      • conventionalism

      • projectivity

      • flexibility

      • authoritarian submission

        pp. 210-211


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a characteristic of people who are high in right-wing authoritarianism?

      • doing and thinking what authority figures tell one to do and think

      • desiring that one’s ingroup dominate and be superior to other groups

      • being aggressive toward people and groups condemned by authority figures

      • adhering to traditional values and social norms


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following is not a characteristic of people who are high in right-wing authoritarianism?

      • doing and thinking what authority figures tell one to do and think

      • desiring that one’s ingroup dominate and be superior to other groups

      • being aggressive toward people and groups condemned by authority figures

      • adhering to traditional values and social norms

        p. 212


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • “What our country really needs is a strong, determined leader who will crush evil, and take us back to our true path.” This item represents the ________ component of right-wing authoritarianism.

      • stereotypy

      • authoritarian submission

      • authoritarian aggression

      • conventionalism


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • “What our country really needs is a strong, determined leader who will crush evil, and take us back to our true path.” This item represents the ________ component of right-wing authoritarianism.

      • stereotypy

      • authoritarian submission

      • authoritarian aggression

      • conventionalism

        p. 212


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • People high in social dominance orientation

      • are prejudiced against those who support the status quo.

      • are competitive and ruthless.

      • reject a society’s legitimizing myths.

      • believe there is enough for everyone.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • People high in social dominance orientation

      • are prejudiced against those who support the status quo.

      • are competitive and ruthless.

      • reject a society’s legitimizing myths.

      • believe there is enough for everyone.

        pp. 216-217


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ are sets of attitudes and beliefs that are used to justify one’s dominant position in society.

      • Authoritarian beliefs

      • Social justice tenets

      • Self-enhancement myths

      • Legitimizing myths


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ are sets of attitudes and beliefs that are used to justify one’s dominant position in society.

      • Authoritarian beliefs

      • Social justice tenets

      • Self-enhancement myths

      • Legitimizing myths

        p. 216


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following would not be a legitimizing myth in social dominance theory?

      • Lesbians and gay men deserve equal employment opportunity.

      • Feminists undermine traditional American values.

      • Poor people are unintelligent.

      • Blacks are lazy.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following would not be a legitimizing myth in social dominance theory?

      • Lesbians and gay men deserve equal employment opportunity.

      • Feminists undermine traditional American values.

      • Poor people are unintelligent.

      • Blacks are lazy.

        p. 216


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Dr. Developmental presented an infant with a photo of a woman repeatedly until the infant got used to the photo. The researcher than simultaneously showed the infant the old photo and a photo of a new woman. Dr. Developmental could conclude that the infant can discriminate between the two photos if the infant

      • looks at both pictures for the same amount of time.

      • refuses to look at either picture.

      • looks at the old photo longer than the new photo.

      • looks at the new photo longer than the old photo.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Dr. Developmental presented an infant with a photo of a woman repeatedly until the infant got used to the photo. The researcher than simultaneously showed the infant the old photo and a photo of a new woman. Dr. Developmental could conclude that the infant can discriminate between the two photos if the infant

      • looks at both pictures for the same amount of time.

      • refuses to look at either picture.

      • looks at the old photo longer than the new photo.

      • looks at the new photo longer than the old photo.

    • p. 264


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • By what age can most children correctly classify people as male or female?

      • two months

      • six to 9 months

      • one year

      • three years


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • By what age can most children correctly classify people as male or female?

      • two months

      • six to 9 months

      • one year

      • three years

        p. 266


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • The finding that children are implicitly aware of social categories at an early age suggests that

      • the influence of parental socialization begins at a very young age.

      • the propensity to organize the social world in meaningful ways is innate.

      • the influence of parental socialization cannot be meaningfully separated from innate influences on the propensity to develop such categories.

      • young infants who are exposed to the media are more likely to be implicitly aware of social categories than those who are not.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • The finding that children are implicitly aware of social categories at an early age suggests that

      • the influence of parental socialization begins at a very young age.

      • the propensity to organize the social world in meaningful ways is innate.

      • the influence of parental socialization cannot be meaningfully separated from innate influences on the propensity to develop such categories.

      • young infants who are exposed to the media are more likely to be implicitly aware of social categories than those who are not.

        p. 265


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • At what age do children begin to exhibit an attractiveness bias?

      • two months

      • six to 9 months

      • one year

      • two years


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • At what age do children begin to exhibit an attractiveness bias?

      • two months

      • six to 9 months

      • one year

      • two years

        p. 26


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which factor most likely accounts for the reduction in other-sex prejudice that appears around high school age?

      • heterosexual interest

      • tolerance-related teaching

      • exposure to role-models that do not exhibit this prejudice

      • all of the above


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which factor most likely accounts for the reduction in other-sex prejudice that appears around high school age?

      • heterosexual interest

      • tolerance-related teaching

      • exposure to role-models that do not exhibit this prejudice

      • all of the above

        p. 282


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ occurs when an individual is rewarded for behaving in a certain way.

      • Indirect teaching

      • Imitation

      • Direct teaching

      • Vicarious learning


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • _________ occurs when an individual is rewarded for behaving in a certain way.

      • Indirect teaching

      • Imitation

      • Direct teaching

      • Vicarious learning

        p. 282


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Observational learning can occur

      • by imitating the attitudes of a live model.

      • by being directly rewarded for one’s behavior.

      • through symbolic modeling, such as reading a book.

      • both a and c


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Observational learning can occur

      • by imitating the attitudes of a live model.

      • by being directly rewarded for one’s behavior.

      • through symbolic modeling, such as reading a book.

      • both a and c

        pp. 282-283


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Victor sees his friend being rewarded for playing with a child of another race. He later chooses to himself play with a child of another race. According to social learning theory, doing so reflects _________ learning.

      • symbolic

      • direct

      • vicarious

      • process


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Victor sees his friend being rewarded for playing with a child of another race. He later chooses to himself play with a child of another race. According to social learning theory, doing so reflects _________ learning.

      • symbolic

      • direct

      • vicarious

      • process

        p. 283


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Direct teaching of racial prejudice is most likely to come from

      • the media.

      • hate group members.

      • parents of any background.

      • observing adults’ behavior.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Direct teaching of racial prejudice is most likely to come from

      • the media.

      • hate group members.

      • parents of any background.

      • observing adults’ behavior.

        p. 283


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following sources is least likely to teach indirectly about prejudice?

      • a toy commercial

      • a children’s book

      • a hate group pamphlet

      • a school program


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review

    • Which of the following sources is least likely to teach indirectly about prejudice?

      • a toy commercial

      • a children’s book

      • a hate group pamphlet

      • a school program

        p. 283


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review Questions

    • List two ways that the attitudes or behaviors of participants in the “Brown Eyes/Blue Eyes” exercise changed when they were deemed to be superior based on their eye color.

    • Distinguish between explicit and implicit awareness of social categories. Give an example of each.

    • Describe the habituation paradigm and explain how it informs us about infants’ implicit awareness of social categories.

    • Describe the doll technique and describe one research finding based on that technique.

    • Think about the research methods that ask children to choose between a person from one social group or another. Defend or refute the statement “Children who show a preference for one group also dislike the member(s) of the nonselected group.”

    • What is a sociometric rating? Give an example.

    • Briefly explain how Black children’s racial attitude development differs from that of White children.

    • Briefly describe two social learning processes that can lead to the development of prejudice in children.

    • List two early childhood experiences that might lead to the development of authoritarianism.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review Questions

    • List two reasons why interest in the authoritarian personality declined.

    • List and define two components of right-wing authoritarianism. Give an example of a statement reflecting each component.

    • List two characteristics of people high in right-wing authoritarianism that predispose them to prejudice.

    • Explain the importance of authority figures to the theory of right-wing authoritarianism.

    • Describe the role of societal power in the theory of social dominance orientation.

    • Define legitimizing myths and explain their importance to the theory of social dominance orientation.

    • Briefly describe one way in which the concepts of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation are different.

    • Name and define two components of empathy.

    • Explain the relationship between empathy and prejudice.

    • Describe one of the two ways that self-esteem might relate to prejudice.?

    • What is intergroup anxiety? List two concerns that result in intergroup anxiety.

    • Name and describe two factors that can lead to intergroup anxiety.

    • Briefly describe two value positions that are related to prejudice. State whether each facilitates or inhibits prejudice..

    • List two values that are associated with anti-gay prejudice.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review Questions

    • 1.Give two examples of how prejudice in the U.S. has changed over time.

    • 2.Support or refute the statement that America is becoming less prejudiced.

    • 3.Explain why a researcher would use the bogus pipeline technique to study prejudice.

    • 4.Describe two forms of day-to-day discrimination that have been reported by Black college students.

    • 5.Describe two events in U.S. History that changed the norms that supported Jim Crow racism.

    • 6.How do contemporary implicit prejudices different from old-fashioned prejudice?

    • 7.Describe one of the propositions shared by theories of contemporary prejudice.

    • 8.List three characteristics of modern-symbolic prejudice.

    • 9.Explain how socialization influences the development of modern-symbolic prejudice.

    • 10.Distinguish between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity. Why is this distinction important to understanding modern-symbolic prejudice?

    • 11.Explain the relationship between personal knowledge of Black people and modern-symbolic prejudice.

    • 12.How do individuals with modern-symbolic prejudice view affirmative action? How do they justify their viewpoint?

    • 13.Explain the relationship between cultural values and subtle prejudice.

    • 14.What distinguishes subtle prejudice from modern-symbolic prejudice?

    • 15.List two emotions commonly experienced by aversive racists.


    Psychology of prejudice and discrimination

    Chapter 4-7 Review Questions

    • Define the concept of prototypicality and explain how it affects observer’s categorization of others.

    • List and describe two processes that affect categorization.

    • Under what conditions is a perceiver likely to categorize based on subcategories rather than basic social categories?

    • Define ingroup overexclusion and explain how individual differences in prejudice affect the tendency to engage in this process.

    • List two ways that prejudiced people differ from non-prejudiced people in the categorization process.

    • Distinguish between automatic and motivated stereotype activation.

    • Explain how cultural beliefs influence automatic stereotype activation.

    • Explain how context influences whether a positive or a negative aspect of a stereotype becomes activated.

    • Is categorization necessary for stereotype activation? Why or why not?


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