Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 67

Supporting Students with Disabilities within Inclusive Settings PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Supporting Students with Disabilities within Inclusive Settings. Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3 Adapted from PaTTAN.

Download Presentation

Supporting Students with Disabilities within Inclusive Settings

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

Supporting Students with Disabilities within Inclusive Settings

Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3

Adapted from PaTTAN


Pattan s mission

The Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network is an initiative of the Pennsylvania Department of Education working in partnership with families and local education agencies to support programs and services to improve student learning and achievement.

PaTTAN’s Mission


Pde s commitment to least restrictive environment lre

Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment.

PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)


Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

District, IU, Preschool, Agency Policy

Your local district’s policies regarding paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and responsibilities provide the final word!


Agenda

Agenda

  • Rationale for Inclusive Practices

  • Supports to Promote Independence

  • Cues and Prompts

  • Peripheral Supports

  • Facilitating Peer Relationships and Interactions


Learner outcomes

Learner Outcomes

Participants will:

  • Describe the rationale for educating students with disabilities in general education settings

  • Define the role of the paraeducator in developing independence of students with disabilities


Learner outcomes1

Learner Outcomes

Participants will:

  • Define and practice support strategies that increase independence for students

  • Identify ways to provide the least intrusive support in general education settings

  • Identify strategies to facilitate relationships between students with and without disabilities


A question to consider

A Question to Consider

Why educate students with disabilities in general education environments?


Special education

Special Education

Is a SERVICE

Not a PLACE


Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

The presumption is that IEP teams beginplacement discussions with the consideration of the regular education classroom with the supplementary aids and services needed to benefit from educational services


Where are we now

Where Are We Now?


Classroom supports

Supports in the General Education Classroom

Classroom Supports

  • Differentiating supports when working with a group

  • Adaptations/Accommodations


Classroom supports1

Supports in the General Education Classroom

Classroom Supports

  • Modeling Acceptance

  • Using Person First Language

  • Practice Disability Etiquette


Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

Supports to Promote Independence

What can I do to develop student independence while supporting students in general education settings?


Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

Supports to Promote Independence

Student

  • Is he/she as independent as he might be or as others?

  • Is he/she ready to learn and does he take charge of his learning?

  • Does he/she need prompts? Is there a plan to fade/reduce prompts?


Why build independence

Supports to Promote Independence

Why Build Independence?


The student can

Supports to Promote Independence

The student can:

  • Make progress and achieve

  • Have membership in the school

  • community

    • Be a lifelong learner


  • How do we build independence

    Supports to Promote Independence

    How do we build independence?

    • Less intrusive supports

    • Less audible supports

    • Facilitating peer to peer interactions


    Less intrusive

    Less Intrusive

    What do we mean by intrusiveness?


    Less audible

    Less Audible

    What do we mean by less audible?


    Matching supports to student needs some samples

    Wait Time

    Set Up and Walk Away

    Reinforcers

    Modeling

    Shaping

    Fading

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Matching Supports to Student Needs * Some Samples


    Matching supports to student needs some samples1

    Partial Participation

    Cues

    Prompts

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Matching Supports to Student Needs * Some Samples


    Supports in the regular education classroom

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    • Partial Participation


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Cues

    • Natural cues are sounds, smells, objects, visual or tactile representations that are consistently or predictably present in the environment.

    • Emphasized or exaggerated cues are built up natural cues, but make the cue more obvious to the student.


    Matching prompts to student needs

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Matching Prompts to Student Needs

    • Draw attention to the natural cue in some way

    • Ask a question about necessary action

    • Give an option

    • Tell the student what action to take

    • Physically guide the student through the process.


    Reducing prompt dependency

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Reducing Prompt Dependency

    • Authentic responses that work

      • Watch proximity!

      • Limit eye contact.

    • Allow time to respond


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    www.ed.utah.edu


    Using cues and prompts

    Using Cues and Prompts

    Let’s take a closer look


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 Math Time

    Cues/Prompts

    Student will takeout math book and prepare for lesson

    Gesture- Look at the clock or look at the other students. Point to another student’s math book or nod your head toward them

    Hint-Ask a question that may lead to the student figuring out what to do

    Option/Choice- Do you need to get out your math book or your writing journal?

    Command- Get out your math book

    Physical Assistance- Assist to retrieve the math book

    Does the student perform skill correctly?

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student participates in math lesson

    Does student make connection between natural & intrinsic R

    NO

    Student demonstrates behavior independently

    YES


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::

    It’s raining outside

    Cueing, Prompting

    Student will take umbrella when he/she goes outside

    • Draw attention to the natural cue/prompt in some way “Look it’s raining outside”

    • Ask a question about a necessary action “What do you need to take when it’s raining outside?”

    • Give an option “ It’s raining outside, do you need to take a broom or an umbrella?”

    • Tell the student what action to take “ It’s raining outside, take your umbrella”

    • Physically guide the student through the process

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student stays dry

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::

    It’s raining outside

    Modeling

    Student will take umbrella when he/she goes outside

    • Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly “ Look , Mark has his umbrella. He is ready for a rainy day. He won’t get wet.”

    • Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken

    • Paraeducator models getting an umbrella….

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student stays dry

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::

    It’s raining outside

    Shaping

    Student will take umbrella when he/she goes outside

    • Break the task/behavior into smaller steps

    • Model steps

    • Have student complete initial or final step

    • Gradually add steps for student to complete

    • Paraeducator begins by asking the student to go to the window and identify the weather. If the student reports rain, the paraeducator helps the student locate his/her umbrella. Gradually the paraeducator would be doing less and less while the student gains independence

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student stays dry

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::

    It’s raining outside

    Wait Time

    Student will take umbrella when he/she goes outside

    • After questioning/modeling, the paraeducator allows adequate time for the student to respond

    • After asking the student, “What do you need on a rainy day?”, the paraeducator allows the student time to respond before providing any further cues or prompts

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student stays dry

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::It’s 10:00 Math Time

    Intrinsic Reinforcers

    Student will takeout math book and prepare for lesson

    For some, completing an activity like finishing a book, may be intrinsically reinforcing

    When someone responds to our greeting, we may be pleased and therefore, increase the rate of initiating greetings

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student participates in math lesson

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Focusing on Intrinsic Reinforcers

    Natural Cue::

    It’s raining outside

    Student will take umbrella when he/she goes outside

    • Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior “ Good for you. You remembered to use your umbrella. You were able to stay dry.”

    • Ask a question about what natural consequences resulted from performing the behavior “ Why did you stay dry? What did you take with you into the rain that helped to keep you dry?”

    • Pair the intrinsic reinforcer with an extrinsic one

    • Student receives a sticker every time he is appropriately dressed for the weather

    • Student is allowed to participate in free time activities or a preferred activity because he/she used the umbrella appropriately

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Student stays dry

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Your turn

    Your Turn


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue:

    Cues/Prompts

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Natural Cue::It’s

    Intrinsic Reinforcers

    Does the student perform the skill correctly?

    NO

    YES

    Intrinsic reinforcer:

    Does student make connection between natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer?

    NO

    YES

    Student demonstrates behavior independently


    Peripheral supports

    Take notes for student for later review

    Increase prominence of material (color coding; increase size)

    Provide pictorial/visual cues

    Construct and promote the use of visual supports (schedules, choice boards, reminder cards)

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Peripheral Supports

    Adapted from How to be a ParaPro Starfish Specialty Pub. 2000


    Peripheral supports1

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Peripheral Supports

    • Pair verbal cues with a gesture

    • Prepare and monitor use of organizational tools (calendars, assignment sheets, etc)

    • Develop checklist to sequence the steps in a task

    • Develop and use adaptations to materials when needed


    Peripheral supports2

    Supports in the Regular Education Classroom

    Peripheral Supports

    • Promote and monitor the use of timers

    • Seize opportunities to reduce the intrusiveness of peripheral support, where appropriate


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    “Fair does not mean that every child gets the same treatment, but that every child gets what he or she needs.”

    Richard D. Lavoie


    Supports that promote independence

    Supports that Promote Independence

    • Less intrusive

    • Less audible

    • Promote independent participation through cues and prompts

    • Can be peripheral


    Strategies to facilitate peer relationships and supports

    Strategies to Facilitate Peer Relationships and Supports


    Move beyond benevolence

    Move “Beyond Benevolence”

    • Don’t make friendships a big deal

    • Respect personal boundaries

    • Model behavior

    • Merge respect and help

    • Van DerKlift, E. & Kunc, N. (1994). Beyond Benevolence: Friendship and the Politics of Help. In J. Thousand, R. Villa & A. Neven (Eds.), Creativity and Collaborative Learning: A practical guide to empowering students and teachers (pp. 391-401). Baltimore: Paul H.Brookes.


    Remember

    Remember!

    If the students with disabilities are always the ones receiving help, it impacts negatively on the social relationships that may have developed.

    • ALL students should be given the opportunity to help others.


    Setting the stage for friendship

    Setting the Stage for Friendship

    • Treat all children in the classroom as capable learners.

    • Model acceptance of, and delight in, every child.

    • Structure seating arrangements, playground and extracurricular activities

    • Provide factual information if teasing occurs


    Setting the stage for friendship1

    Setting the Stage for Friendship

    • Friendship Clubs – such as structured social skill lessons or lunch bunch

    • Shared Service Learning Experiences

    • Cooperative Learning Opportunities

    • Extracurricular activities

    • Opportunities for children to interact


    The most successful friendship building strategy

    The Most Successful Friendship Building Strategy:

    People with disabilities engaging in a range of activities in which they have interest, and making natural connections with people in their schools, neighborhoods and communities.

    Gee, Kathleen (2004) TASH Connections, Volume 30 (1/2), 3.


    Strategies to support relationships

    Strategies to support relationships

    • Provide all students the opportunity to help each other

    • Model acceptance of all students regardless of ability


    Strategies to support relationships1

    Strategies to support relationships

    • Look for opportunities where students can interact

    • Be attentive to interests and natural connections


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Facilitating Peer Interactions and Relationships

    Social, Play, and Leisure Supports


    Social play and leisure supports

    Facilitating Socialization

    Social, Play and Leisure Supports

    • Use turn markers for games and sports activities

    • Use environmental set-ups to promote social and communicative behavior

    • Use social stories and social scripts

    • Set up opportunities

    Adapted from How to be a ParaPro Starfish Specialty Pub. 2000


    Social play and leisure supports1

    Facilitating Socialization

    Social, Play and Leisure Supports

    • Be a coach

    • Be proactive regarding ways to increase students’ involvement in activities and games

    • Promote peer modeling


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Facilitating Peer Interactions

    and Relationships

    Building Independence

    Together we can do it!!!


    Supporting students with disabilities within inclusive settings

    Whether student’s needs have been met is reflected not only by whether they have attained certain objectives, but by the impact the educational experiences have had on their lives.Michael Giangreco, 1994


    Learner outcomes2

    Learner Outcomes

    Participants will:

    • Describe the rationale for educating students with disabilities in general education settings

    • Define the role of the paraeducator in developing independence of students with disabilities


    Learner outcomes3

    Learner Outcomes

    Participants will:

    • Define and practice support strategies that increase independence for students

    • Identify ways to provide the least intrusive support in general education settings

    • Identify strategies to facilitate relationships between students with and without disabilities


    Contact information www pattan net

    King Of Prussia Office:

    Debbie Brown

    [email protected]

    610-265-7321

    Harrisburg Office:

    Sharon Leonard

    [email protected]

    717-541-4960

    Pittsburgh Office:

    Elaine Neugebauer

    [email protected]

    412-826-2336

    Contact Information www.pattan.net

    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Edward G. Rendell, Governor

    Pennsylvania Department of Education

    Gerald L. Zahorchak, D.Ed., Secretary

    Diane Castelbuono, Deputy Secretary

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education

    John J. Tommasini, Director

    Bureau of Special Education

    Patricia Hozella, Assistant Director

    Bureau of Special Education


  • Login