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Unit 3 Culture and Strategy. Strategy for Tourism. Reading. Objectives. After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand: Culture, difference and reproduction Organisational culture Cultural web The cultural environment

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unit 3 culture and strategy
Unit 3

Culture and Strategy

Strategy for Tourism

objectives
Objectives
  • After studying this chapter and related materials you should be able to understand:
    • Culture, difference and reproduction
    • Organisational culture
    • Cultural web
    • The cultural environment
  • and critically evaluate, explain and apply the above concepts.
case study 3 the walt disney company
Larry Lynch of the Disney Institute, Walt Disney World, Florida, explains the role of the WDC “university” in inducting new staff:

“… it all begins the day new Cast Members arrive for orientation at Disney University, the company\'s internal training operation. The timing couldn\'t be better to show them how our company thinks, to offer concrete examples of how creativity and innovation have helped us grow, and to emphasize how our ongoing traditions have been the steady hand that guides us. Those traditions are pointed out again when new Cast Members are introduced to their assigned workplaces. As they learn the culture of the company, they recognize the traditions in the standard operating procedures and established norms of their work areas…”

Case Study 3: The Walt Disney Company
organisational culture
Organisational culture refers to organisational beliefs, values and attitudes (Schein, 1985; Martin and Siehl, 1983).

It describes out the way things are done in a particular organisation and forms the basis for the rules of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Organisational culture is thus the arbiter of organisational norms and it therefore acts as a powerful force in encouraging or frustrating the emergence of new missions and strategies. This is particularly so where culture is deeply embedded.

The term cultural web (Johnson and Scholes 1993) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation\'s culture - symbols, rituals, stories and power, which add up to a paradigm - an agreed way of going about things.

Organisational Culture
mission and culture
Cultural variance between countries in which tourism organisations operate can be understood by reference to differences in:

attitudes to authority

attitudes to work and leisure

beliefs including religion and materialism

traditions

pursuit of individual or community goals

definitions of good and bad, worthy and unworthy (the moral and ethical system)

sources of status

Cultural norms are transmitted by and changed by

the family

education

mass media

the arts

government

Mission and Culture
hofstede
The relationship between national cultures and organizational cultures has been analysed by Hofstede & Hofstede (1991) and Hofstede (2001) and these studies uncovered national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations that work within them.

Hofstede found five dimensions of culture in his study of national work related values:

Low vs. high power distance (PDI)

Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV)

Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)

Low vs. high uncertainty avoidance (UAI)

Long vs. short term orientation (LTO)

Hofstede
reproduction and path dependency
Cultural reproduction (Bourdieu, 1973) refers to the way in which culture (including values, attitudes, goals, and practices) is maintained over time and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Acculturation refers to the process by which new members are inducted into the value systems of a culture.

Path dependency occurs when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.

Reproduction and Path Dependency
the cultural web
A cultural web (Johnson et al., 2008) is a useful device for highlighting the different strands of an organisation\'s culture. These include:

symbols

rituals and routines

stories

power structures and organisational structures

control systems

The Cultural Web
cultural types
Defenders

Conservative

seek security

Cautious

avoid change

Inflexible

set in their ways

reactive

Prospectors

outward-looking

responsive to environment

daring

opportunistic

flexible

adaptive

proactive

Cultural Types

Miles and Snow (1978) distinguish between defender types, and prospector types of cultures in organisations.

the cultural environment
The broad political system within which entities operate should also be considered as an important aspect of the cultural environment. Competing ideologies include:

Communism

Democratic Socialism

Neoliberalism and

Third Way politics

The Cultural Environment
review of key terms
Culture: a set of shared values, attitudes, goals, and practices that characterise a group of people.

Hofstede: studied the relationship between national cultures and organizational cultures.

Ideology: a system of beliefs that directs the policies and activities of its adherents.

Cultural reproduction: the way in which culture is maintained over time and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Path dependency: when certain decisions and events create paths or routes into the future and exert long term effects on subsequent decisions and events.

Organisational culture: organisational beliefs, values and attitudes.

Cultural web: the different strands of an organisation\'s culture

Review of Key Terms
discussion questions
Analyse the cultural issues that relate to The Walt Disney Company in relation to its strategy.

Construct a cultural web for a tourism entity of your choice giving examples of the components.

Explain the uses of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture for understanding the culture of a tourism entity.

What causes reproduction and path dependency? Explain why these are problems for tourism entities that you are familiar with.

Explain the interrelationship between socialism, modernization, and traditional culture in China and its relevance for the study of the culture of tourism entities.

Discussion Questions
exercise cultural difference
Prepare short notes giving:

Advice for tourists coming to country x from country UK on cultural differences

Advice for hotel in UK for understanding cultural differences in visitors from country x

Advice for UK employees who get a job in the travel trade in country x

Exercise: Cultural Difference
case study new zealand
Examine the New Zealand Tourism Strategy for 2015

Evaluate the appropriateness of the mission and aims

Identify the key stakeholders who influence the mission

Analyse the sources of stakeholder power

What is the relationship between culture and mission?

Case Study: New Zealand
nz tourism strategy
Details of the Tourism Strategy for New Zealand can be found at

http://www.nztourismstrategy.com/files/NZTS2015%20final.pdf

For lecturer use only:

nz tourism strategy 2015.pdf

NZ Tourism Strategy
unit 3 culture and strategy the end
Unit 3

Culture and Strategy

The End

Strategy for Tourism

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