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What do you think is the purpose of DNA ...why does it exist at all? Is DNA found in all creatures? How different is DNA among different creatures? A dog? A banana? A bacterium?. DNA The Blue Prints of Life!.

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Dna the blue prints of life

What do you think is the purpose of DNA ...why does it exist at all? Is DNA found in all creatures?How different is DNA among different creatures? A dog? A banana? A bacterium?

DNA

The Blue Prints of Life!


If the total DNA in one person were laid in a straight line, it would stretch to the sun and back over 600 times (it's 93 million miles from here to the sun).



Modern Humans have about 1 – 4 % Neanderthal DNA. at the end of a sentence.

The difference between your DNA and the person next to you is less than 0.1%.

You share about 96% of your DNA with a Chimpanzee, our closest relative on planet Earth.

You share about 60% of your DNA with a Banana.


Chapter 12 at the end of a sentence.

DNA

and

RNA


What is dna
What is DNA? at the end of a sentence.

  • DNA (De-oxy-ribo-nucleic Acid) is the nucleic acid that stores the genetic code.

    What is a Genetic Code?

  • Genetic Codes are programs of the cell. In other words how cells store information they pass from one generation to the next.


What is dna made of
WHAT IS DNA MADE OF? at the end of a sentence.

  • DNA is a polymer (Large Molecule) formed from units called nucleotides.

    • A nucleotide is made up of three parts:

      • Nitrogen base

      • Deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar)

      • Phosphate group


Nitrogen bases
NITROGEN BASES at the end of a sentence.

  • There are 4 different nitrogen bases:

  • Adenine(A) and Guanine(G) which are the purines

  • Cytosine(C) and Thymine(T) which are the pyrimidines


Base pairing rules
BASE PAIRING RULES at the end of a sentence.

  • Erwin Chargaff discovered the base pair ruling that in DNA:

    • Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) by 2 hydrogen bonds

    • Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G) by 3 hydrogen bonds

      REMEMBER

  • AT and GC

    • OR ELSE!!!!!


Testing your skill can you write the corresponding nitrogen base
Testing Your Skill at the end of a sentence. Can you write the corresponding Nitrogen Base?

  • GAC TAT ATT GAC ATT GAG CCC TTA

  • ATA GAG CAC GCA TAT CCG AGT TAT

    Do you understand how to match up the bases??? IF NOT ASK FOR HELP NOW!!!


Structure of dna
STRUCTURE OF DNA: at the end of a sentence.

  • Is called a double helix (resembles a twisted ladder): has 2 strands


Watson and crick
Watson and Crick at the end of a sentence.

  • Made the first model of the DNA ladder called the Double Helixin 1953.

  • They used X-ray crystalography pictures created by Rosalind Franklin and Chargaff’s rule to develop their ladder.

  • They won the nobel prize in 1962 for their accomplishments.


Rosalind franklin

Rosalind Franklin at the end of a sentence. also played a major role in the ladder’s discovery because Watson and Crick used her photos of the DNA ladder to figure out and assemble the model.(Unfortunately she died 4 years before the nobel prize was awarded at the age of 37 of ovarian cancer. Her contributions were made known later after the award was given. According to Nobel Prize Rules, the individual must be alive in order to receive the award )

ROSALIND FRANKLIN


Scientists at the end of a sentence.

  • Fredrick Griffith (microbiology research with nucleic acids)

  • Oswald Avery (colleague that completed/supported Griffith’s work)

  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (proved that DNA and not protein is the genetic material of life)

  • Erwin Chargaff (A-T, G-C)

  • Rosalind Franklin (x-ray pics-DNA)

  • Francis Crick and James Watson (double helix model)


Rosalind Franklin at the end of a sentence.

Born: London, England, July 25, 1920

Died: London, England, April 16, 1958

Pioneer Molecular Biologist

There is probably no other woman scientist with as much controversy surrounding her life and work as Rosalind Franklin. Franklin was responsible for much of the research and discovery work that led to the understanding of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA.


Dna replication synthesis
DNA Replication ( at the end of a sentence. synthesis)

DNA replicationis an important process because as cell divide, it is critical that the two daughter cell are identical to the original cell.

Now we will look at how DNA replication take place.


Process of dna replication

Each strand (side) of DNA serves as a template for a new strand of DNA

Steps of replication:

Enzymes unzip DNA breaking hydrogen bonds between bases.

The two strands unwind.

Each DNA strand serves as a template for complementary bases.

Example: TEMPLATE DNA: TAC-GTT

NEW DNA: ATG-CAA

DNA replicates itself exactly so that each new cell will have an identical copy of the original DNA ladder.

Process of DNA Replication


Dna replication video
DNA REPLICATION VIDEO strand of DNA



RNA strand of DNA

There are 3 different types:

mRNA

tRNA

rRNA


mRNA strand of DNA

  • mRNA is the nucleic acid that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes and carries the genetic code for making protein from amino acids.


mRNA strand of DNA

Just like DNA, RNA is made of Nucleotides: A, U, C, G.

Notice, RNA does not contain thyamine (T) as a base, but instead has uracil (U).

So in RNA its AU and CG


Protein synthesis
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS strand of DNA

Why make protein?

Proteins are needed for cell structure and movement, makes enzymes and nucleotides.


Transcription

Transcription strand of DNA is the process in which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA.

DNA is in the nucleus and can’t leave, so a messenger RNA-(mRNA) must bring the genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosomesin the cytoplasm

TRANSCRIPTION


Steps in transcription

RNA polymerase attaches to DNA and moves along it unwinding the two strands

RNA nucleotides match up with the bases of DNA

Ex: DNA TGCACGCA

mRNAACGUGCGU

Steps in Transcription


Codons
CODONS the two strands

  • Codon- is a 3 letter word composed of 3 nucleotides on mRNA.

    • Each codon codes for a particular amino acid while chains of amino acids form proteins.

    • There are 64 different codons; there can be more than 1 codon for each amino acid.

    • There are start and stop codons.

      EXAMPLES OF CODONS

      AUG-CCC-GAA-GGG-UAA


Can you identify the codons in the problems below
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE CODONS IN THE PROBLEMS BELOW? the two strands

  • AUGCCCAUAGACUAG

  • AUGGACCGGCUUUAA

    YOUR TEACHER WILL TEACH YOU HOW TO USE THE CODON TO IDENTIFY THE AMINO ACID


Protein synthesis video
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS VIDEO the two strands


Still confused
STILL CONFUSED? the two strands

  • Imagine that you are a mechanic. The repair manual that you use is the DNA ladder.

  • If you wanted to copy the instructions to install a radio in your car, would you copy the entire repair manual? (RAISE YOUR HAND TO ANSWER)

  • NO!!! You would only copy the portion pertaining to installing the radio. That is what transcription does.


Continued
CONTINUED the two strands

  • Enzymes open the DNA ladder and the needed portion is copied in the form of mRNA.

  • Why is it called mRNA?

    It carries the message or instructions on how to assemble something.

  • What’s next?

    This message is carried from the nucleus to a ribosome which is located outside of the nucleus.

    (HINT: M=Messenger)


Translation
translation the two strands

  • is the process of building a protein molecule according to code in mRNA.


Translation cont
Translation cont. the two strands

  • During the process, transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids to ribosomes where the amino acids are joined to form the protein. (**ribosomes are the place where protein are made)


Translations cont
Translations cont. the two strands

  • Steps of translation:

    1. tRNA bind to the mRNA.

    2. a “start” codon start the protein synthesis.

    3. tRNA contains 3 complementary nucleotides to the mRNA called the anticodon; once it matches it leaves behind amino acid and next codon is read.


Translation cont1
Translation cont. the two strands

  • More tRNA molecules will come together to create the _____________.

  • Once a “stop” codon is read, the new polypeptide chain is released as a new protein.


Translation video
Translation Video the two strands


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