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The potential & paradoxes of new technologies & implications for education & its implications for web citizenship

Gráinne Conole,

The Open University, UK

Aprenred, University of Guadalajara, Mexico, 7th October 2010


Orientation l.jpg
Orientation for education & its implications for web citizenship

Web citizenship

Social inclusion

Focus

  • Open, social and participatory media

  • Mapping pedagogies to e-learning

  • A vision of openness – Open Practices

    • Open Design

    • Open Delivery

    • OpenResearch

    • Open Evaluation

  • Implications for learning and teaching

Innovation

Quality


Open social and participatory media l.jpg
Open, social and participatory media for education & its implications for web citizenship

New tools/practices are leading to new forms of learning and teaching

Media sharing

Sharing

Web 2.0

Blogs & wikis

Communicating

Social networking

Networking

Virtual worlds

Interacting

Shift from:

Web 1.0 – content repository and static information

Web 2.0 – user generated content and social mediation


A typology of new technologies l.jpg
A typology of new technologies for education & its implications for web citizenship

(Conole and Alevizou, 2010), Review of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education

http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/1895 and http://bit.ly/b08uY2#HEA


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So what is learning? for education & its implications for web citizenship

Thought by itself, however, moves nothing; what moves us is thought aiming at some goal and concerned with action (Aristotle)

Human learning… whole persons construct experiences of situation and transform them into knowledge, skills attitudes, values, emotions and the senses, and integrate the outcomes into their own biographies (Jarvis, 2004)

Knowledge is information already transformed: selected, analyzed, interpreted, integrated, articulated, tested evaluated’ (Laurillard, 1993)


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Pedagogies of for education & its implications for web citizenshipe-learning

Mayes & De Freitas, 2004

Dyke et. al, 2007

Conole, 2010

A

E-training

Drill & practice

Inquiry learning

Resource-based

Associative

Focus on individual

Learning through association and reinforcement

Constructivist

Building on prior knowledge

Task-orientated

Situative

Learning through social interaction

Learning in context

Connectivist

Learning in a networked environment

Experiential, problem-based, role play

Reflective & dialogic learning,

Personalised learning


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Some case study examples for education & its implications for web citizenship

Interactive materials,

e-assessment

E-training,

drill and practice

Location aware devices, Virtual worlds, online games

Inquiry learning, resource-based learning

Google, media sharing repositories, user-generated content

Experiential, problem-based, role play

Blogs, RSS feeds, e-portfolios, wikis, social networks

Reflective and dialogic learning, Personalised learning


E training drill and practice l.jpg
E-training, drill and practice for education & its implications for web citizenship

McNaught, 2010, Edmedia Keynote


Going mobile l.jpg
Going mobile for education & its implications for web citizenship


Inquiry based learning l.jpg
Inquiry-based learning for education & its implications for web citizenship

My community

The Personal Inquiry project

Inquiry-based learning across formal and informal settings

Sharples, Scanlon et al.

http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/


Resource based learning l.jpg
Resource-based learning for education & its implications for web citizenship

GLO Maker

Learning Objects

Podcasts - iTunes U

Open Educational

Resources


Situated learning virtual exhibitions l.jpg
Situated learning – virtual exhibitions for education & its implications for web citizenship

What can avatars do? Virtual realities in collaborative learning

Li et al., 2010, Edmedia conference

Aims to develop proficient technical writing and design skills

Cohort of 82 students created a movie poster of the film, Avatar

Virtual exhibition in SecondLife

Other examples:

Archeological digs

Medical wards

Art exhibitions

Cyber-law

Virtual language exchange

Beyond formal schooling


Role based learning l.jpg
Role-based learning for education & its implications for web citizenship

Wills et al., 2010

Pheny and Shun, 2009, Ascilite conference


Reflective and dialogic learning l.jpg
Reflective and dialogic learning for education & its implications for web citizenship

Uses

Blogs and E-portfolios for personal reflection

Wikis/social bookmarking for aggregation

Wikis for project-based work

Cohort blogs for shared understanding

Web 2.0 tool to connect beyond the course

E-portfolios for aggregation and evidence

Twitter for just-in-time learning

Joyes, 2009, Ascilite conference


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Personalised learning for education & its implications for web citizenship

Connectivism and Connective knowledge

Critical literacies online


A redefining of what ict means l.jpg

Communication+ for education & its implications for web citizenship

A redefining of what ICT means

Audio & video conferencing

Media sharing

Forums

Google

wave

Email

Wikis

Blogs

Instant messaging

Twitter

Interactivity

Virtual worlds,

online games &

immersive environments

Web pages

Social networking

Mash ups


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Co-evolution of tools and practice for education & its implications for web citizenship

Affordances of technologies

Characteristics of users

Affordances (Gibson)

‘All"action possibilities" latent in an environmentt…

but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities.’

For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a Giraffe but not a sheep.

Reflection

Preferences

Dialogue

Interests

Evolving

practices

Aggregation

Skills

Interactivity

Context

Basic communications

& gestures

Symbolic representations

(words, numbers)

1st wave technologies (phone, radio, fax,

TV, CD/DVDs)

2nd wave technologies networks, mobiles, the Internet)


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Digital skills (Jenkins, et al., 2008) for education & its implications for web citizenship

Play

Visualisation

Performance

Negotiation

Appropriation

Simulation

Multi-tasking

Networking

Distributed cognition

Transmedia navigation

Collective intelligence

Judgment


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The reality gap for education & its implications for web citizenship

Paradoxes

Technologies not fully exploited

Little evidence of use of OER

Predominance of ‘old practices’

Media sharing

Blogs & wikis

Reasons

Technical, pedagogical, organisational…

“Lack of time, research vs. teaching, lack of skills, no rewards, no support….”

Solutions?

Models and frameworks

Learning design

Pedagogical patterns

Open Educational Resources

Virtual worlds &

online games

Social networking


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Redefining openness… for education & its implications for web citizenship

Design

Courses design & shared openly

Delivery

Use of free tools & resources

What is/will be the impact of an increasingly open technologically mediated learning environment in learning and teaching?

Peer critiquing

Sharing

Repurposing

Open practices

Networking

Inquiry

Collective

intelligence

Research

Sharing of research data

Evaluation

Critical reflection

Also see Alex Couros, Edmedia, 2010


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Open Design for education & its implications for web citizenship

Open Delivery

Open Research

X-Delia

Open Evaluation


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Open Design: Learning design for education & its implications for web citizenship

Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches

A design-based approach to creation and support of courses

Encourages reflective, scholarly practices

Promotes sharing and discussion

Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Rebecca Galley, Paul Mundin


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The learning design concept wheel for education & its implications for web citizenship

Learning Design taxonomy

Mediating artefacts

Affordances

Tools

Activities

Cloudworks

Resources

Resources

’Design

Challenge’

Foundations

Collaboration

DialogPlus toolkit

Phoebe planner

Pedagogic planner

Course views

Representation

Activities

Tools

Tools

Activities

Resources

Excel template

CompendiumLD


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Translates into… for education & its implications for web citizenship

Tailored guided pathways of different levels of intensity and length

Awareness sessions

Using technologies

Design challenges

Master’s level OER

Free format


Representation l.jpg
Representation for education & its implications for web citizenship

The Open University, UK

KE312

Working together with children

How are courses typically represented?

How explicit is the inherent design?

What’s the problem?

Text-based/focus on content

Doesn’t show what the course is really like or what it consists of


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Course views: conceptual and data-driven for education & its implications for web citizenship

Learning Outcomes

Pedagogy Profile

Course Dimensions

Course Map

Task Swimlane

Course Performance

Cost effectiveness


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KE312 - Course map for education & its implications for web citizenship

Guidance & Support

Course guide, study calendar, study planner, 20 learning guides, General assessment guidelines and assignments

Tutor support: 1:20, 21 hours

Content & Activities

3 co-published books, DVDs of 3 practice settings, core questions, thinking points in course books

Own experience and practice

PDFs, e-journal articles & websites, activities in learning guides, 5 website interactivities

Communication & Collaboration

F-t-F tutorials near beginning, middle and end, Course-wide café forum, Tutor-group forums with sub-groups for each block

Reflection & Demonstration

Journal space in the Mystuffe-portfolio,

6 assignments online (50% of overall score)

Course summary

KE312 - Working together with Children,

60 pt course over 32 weeks, 3 blocks/20 guides

Whole weeks devoted to assignments

Consolidation week (week 22)

Key words

Practice-related, aligned to latest professional framework for multi-agency working, rich cases

Read-Relate to practice – Reflect - Write


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Pedagogy profile for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Map of learner tasks to time periods (weeks, semesters, etc.)

  • 6 types of learner task + assessment

    • Assimilative

    • Information handling

    • Communication

    • Productive

    • Experiential

    • Adaptive

    • Assessment

  • Each cell indicates the amount

  • of time spent on each type of task

Learning Activity Taxonomy - Conole, 2008


Course dimensions l.jpg
Course dimensions for education & its implications for web citizenship

Guidance &

Support

Content &

Activities

Reflection &

demonstration

Communication

& Collaboration


Learning outcomes l.jpg
Learning outcomes for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Mapping learning outcomes to:

    • Activities

    • Assessment

  • Based on Biggs’ work (1999) on constructive alignment

  • Maps course and highlights any gaps


Task swimlane l.jpg
Task for education & its implications for web citizenshipswimlane

  • Focus on the tasks learners do

  • Base on:

    • Roles (learner, tutor, etc.)

    • Tasks (read, discuss, etc.)

    • Tools and resources

    • Outputs

  • Advantages

    • Makes design explicit

    • Maps out design

    • Sharable with others

    • Good at activity level

  • Use

    • Mind mapping tools – CompendiumLD, CMap, Freemind

    • Pen, paper and stickers


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Tutor costs for education & its implications for web citizenship


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Working between the views for education & its implications for web citizenship

Course map

Pedagogy profile

Learning outcomes

Course dimensions

Task swimlane


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Modeling with data-derived views for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • What happens to course performance, if…

    • Include more collaboration

    • Decrease the amount of tutor support

    • Increase use of Web 2.0 tools?

5 conceptual views

  • What are the cost implications of…

    • Including more online assessment

    • More student-generated content

    • Introducing use of SecondLife?

Course Business Models project

Mick Jones, Andrew Russell, Paul Mundin, Peter Wilson


Weighing it all up l.jpg

Cons for education & its implications for web citizenship

Weighing it all up

Pros

  • Makes design explicit

  • Foregrounds specific aspects of the design

  • Acts as a scaffold/guide to the design process

  • Views act as a shared dialogic mediating artefact

  • Comparative analysis

  • Check points and reflection

  • The power of sharing and discussing

  • Design is a complex process!

  • Understanding the views

  • Recognising their limitations

  • The dangers of a formulaic approach

  • Time to master/appropriate

  • The difficulty of shifting entrenched practice

  • Still to be empirically validated


Dialogue and collaboration l.jpg
Dialogue and collaboration for education & its implications for web citizenship

A space for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas

Application of web 2.0 practice

Examples for teachers & learners to share/discuss

A space for collaboration & communication

Helps develop skills needed for engaging with new technologies’


Quick language guide l.jpg
Quick language guide for education & its implications for web citizenship

Cloud:

Anything to do with learning and teaching

Cloudscape:

A collection of clouds

Activity stream:

Latest activities on a Cloudscape or people

Favourites:

Vote for things your like

Follow:

Cloudscapes, Clouds or people

RSS feeds:

For Cloudscapes, Clouds & people

Attend: Conferences & workshops


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Conferences and workshops for education & its implications for web citizenship


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Flash debates for education & its implications for web citizenship

Virtual desk research

Virtual reading circles

Evolving patterns of user behaviour

Expert elicitation


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Cloudworks leaflet for education & its implications for web citizenship

Help

Cloudworks the movie!

http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2457

Using Cloudworks Cloudscape

http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/1911


Take a digital walking tour l.jpg
Take a digital walking tour for education & its implications for web citizenship

Using cloudworks Cloudscapes

The Cloudworks Cloudquest

Browse Clouds and Cloudscapes

Free search

Explore user profiles

Look at current events

Contribute to the Flash debates

Push the boat out – create a Cloud 


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Open Delivery – Use of OER for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Basic definition

    • The open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes (UNESCO 2002)

  • Broader definition

    • Learning resources

    • Courseware, content modules, learning objects, learner support & assessment tools, online learning communities

    • Resources to support teachers

    • Tools for teachers and support materials to enable them to create, adapt and use OER; training materials for teachers

    • Resources to assure the quality of education and educational practices (UNESCO 2004)


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Open Educational Resource movement for education & its implications for web citizenship

Open Learning Initiative


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Pedagogically rich for education & its implications for web citizenship


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Olnet for education & its implications for web citizenship: Open Learning network

Network

  • From producing open resources to use of open resources

  • Build capacity

  • Find evidence

  • Refine the issues

Research

Fellowships

Conole, McAndrew & Demtriadis, Forthcoming


Making reuse possible l.jpg
Making reuse possible for education & its implications for web citizenship

Conole, McAndrew & Demitriadis, Forthcoming


Explicit design l.jpg
Explicit design for education & its implications for web citizenship


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Design, use, reuse for education & its implications for web citizenship

Design

Design

Uses

Repurposes

& deposits

Deposits

Uses

OER

OER

Teacher B

Learner A

Learner B

Teacher A

Creates

Chooses

Deposits

Quiz + beginners route

Quiz + advanced route


A vision of transformation l.jpg
A vision of transformation for education & its implications for web citizenship

Beyond content – focus on activity and use

Learners as self-directed and autonomous

More of a focus on sharing, refinement, iteration, critical reflection

OER as a potential catalyst to transforming educational practice

Improvements in social inclusion, quality and innovation


From resources to practices l.jpg
From resources to practices for education & its implications for web citizenship


The opal vision l.jpg
The OPAL vision for education & its implications for web citizenship

Focus on the practice around OER rather than the resources

Better understanding will lead to improvements in the quality of OER and more innovation

Open Educational Resource Practice

OEP constitute the range of practices around the creation, use and management of OER with the intent to improve quality and innovate education.


Abstracting dimensions of practice l.jpg
Abstracting dimensions of Practice for education & its implications for web citizenship

Approach

60+ case studies of OER collected

Dimensions of OEP derived

Derivation of the OEP cube model

Validation

Spotlight on OER on Cloudworks

EDEN workshop

OER activity on Cloudworks

Ongoing online consultation process

http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/2105


Validation oer activity on cloudworks l.jpg
Validation: OER activity on Cloudworks for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • 27 Cloudscapes and 13 Clouds evaluated

  • Kinds of activities

    • Reviews, events, debates, other

    • Intentional, practical, social

  • Types of Clouds

    • Instructional, informational, archival Notes, resource aggregator, project descriptions, discussion & debate spaces, interviews

Alevizou et al. 2010


Emergent issues from oer research l.jpg
Emergent issues from OER research for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Motivations for sharing and incentives for participation

  • Financial sustainability and licensing jurisdictions

  • OER tracking, usage patterns and users motivations

  • Quality and credentials

  • Effectiveness metrics

  • Types of research and dissemination of empirical results

  • Linking research with policy and practice


The oep cube model l.jpg
The OEP cube model for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • THE DIMENSION: What?

    • Strategies and Policies

    • Barriers and Success Factors

    • Tools and Tool Practices

    • Skills Development and Support

  • THE CONTEXT: Where?

    • Macro level (society)

    • Meso level (organisation)

    • Micro level (individuals)

  • MATURITY: How well is it established?

    • Initial (not yet started)

    • Managed

    • Defined

    • Optimizing (embedded / advanced)

CONTEXT

MATURITY

DIMENSION


The cube model l.jpg
The cube model for education & its implications for web citizenship

1AX

1BX

1AX

1BX

1BX

1BX

1AY

1BX

Levels

1BY

1BX

1BY

3AX

Macro-level: Societal

Meso-level: Organisation

Micro-level: Individual

2AX

1BY

3BX

2BX

3CX

2AX

2BX

3DX

2BX

2BX

2AY

2BX

2BY

2BX

2BY

2AX

3AX

2BY

2BX

3BX

2CX

3AX

3BX

2DX

3BX

3BX

3AY

3BX

3BY

3BX

3BY

1AX

3BY

1BX

Strategies & policies

Barriers & successfactors

Tools & toolpractices

SkillsDev &Support

1CX

1DX

Level of maturity

Optimizing

Defined

Managed

Initial

Dimensions

OER embedded in strategy

Institutional OER repository

Adapted from diagram by T. Koskinen


Uses and benefits l.jpg
Uses and benefits for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Three uses

    • Benchmarking

    • Guidance

    • Reflection and comparison

  • Benefits

    • Guides users in understanding how to think about the key issues.

    • Flexible enough to cover the multiple stakeholders

    • Sub-cubes provide practical illustrative examples

    • Useful as a mechanism for institutions to self-benchmark


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Final thoughts for education & its implications for web citizenship

Learning and the context of learning have changed

We need new approaches to learning and teaching

How can we harness increasingly sophisticated tools and OERs?

How can we support innovation in the use and reuse of OER?

Will openness enable or restrict social inclusion?

What are the quality implications in an increasingly open context?

How can we ensure research better informs policy and practice?

A vision for the future, harnessing the power of openness


Sources l.jpg
Sources for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • Mash ups http://www.flickr.com/photos/richardellard/4524139966/

  • Molecule http:[email protected]/498827420/

  • Periodic table http://www.flickr.com/photos/chemheritage/3984920162/

  • Music sheet http://www.flickr.com/photos/anyaka/21848267/

  • One world http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/

  • World of warcraft http://www.flickr.com/photos/shardsofblue/3981216281/

  • Questionmarkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/

  • http://suifaijohnmak.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/communication-sep08_leskovec_tdef_page_03_480.jpg

  • Yin-Yang image http://learn4kicks.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/yinyangconceptmap.gif

  • Imperial collage second life island http://knowledgecast.wordpress.com/2009/07/10/icl-tour2/

  • Personal Inquiry project http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/resources/

  • E-Portfolios http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/e-portfolios


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Sources for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • http://www.geeky-gadgets.com/samsung-galaxy-s2-android-3-0-and-a-2ghz-processor-06-07-2010/

  • http://thehottestgadgets.com/2008/05/samsung-to-debut-3m-mini-projectors-with-new-phones-00280

  • http://www.dontwasteyourtime.co.uk/elearning/ipad-is-it-any-good-for-the-classroom-or-learning/

  • http://www.erwinvanlun.com/images/uploads/SmartGlasses.jpg

  • OpenLearningInitiative

  • http://distancelearn.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=distancelearn&cdn=education&tm=6&f=00&su=p897.9.336.ip_&tt=11&bt=1&bts=1&zu=http://www.cmu.edu/oli/

  • Molecule http:[email protected]/498827420/

  • Periodic table http://www.flickr.com/photos/chemheritage/3984920162/

  • Music sheet http://www.flickr.com/photos/anyaka/21848267/

  • One world http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/

  • World of warcraft http://www.flickr.com/photos/shardsofblue/3981216281/

  • Questionmarkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/

  • Crystal ball http://mashable.com/2009/08/20/ted-future/


Sources62 l.jpg
Sources for education & its implications for web citizenship

  • iPhonehttp://virulentwordofmouse.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/iphone.jpg

  • eBook readers http://wowio.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/reader-options2.jpg


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