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DESCRIBING LANGUAGE. Saadettin CAN X11060044. WHAT IS GRAMMAR?. G rammar is the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the language . This includes the structure of words , phrases , clauses and sentences . THE GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE.

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Describing language

DESCRIBING LANGUAGE

Saadettin CAN

X11060044



  • Grammaris the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in thelanguage. This includes the structure of words, phrases, clausesand sentences.


The grammar of the language
THE GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE

  • Thegrammar of a language is thedescription of theways in whichwords can changetheirformsandcombinedintosentences in thatlanguage.

  • We can createanynumber of differentsentences.


  • Forexample:

  • Thechildbrokethewindow.(Active)

  • Thewindowwasbrokenby a boy.(Passive)

  • NP1 + VP + NP2  NP2 + be + V – ed + by + NP1


What is competence and performance
WHAT IS COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE?

  • AccordingtoChomskycompetencerefers to a speaker's knowledge andability to produce and to understand a number of sentences.

  • Performance refers to the specific utterances, including grammatical mistakes and non-linguistic features.It is therealisation of competence.


What is morpheme
WHAT IS MORPHEME?

  • Morphemeis the smallest conceptual meaningful component of a word.

  • Morphology(usingmorphemestochangethemeaning) andsyntax(theorderthatwords can be arranged in) areessential in writingorspeechfor a successfulcommunication.


Spoken and written grammar
SPOKEN AND WRITTEN GRAMMAR

  • Sometimes in speechsomegrammaticalrulesseemto be completelyignored.

  • SpokenEnglish has itsowndiscoursemarkers:


  • Forexample:

  • Frequentnon-clasualunits(Mmm,No,Uhhuh,Yeah)

  • A variety of tags not found in writtenstyle, such as questiontags.

  • Hesitators(er, umm, erm)

  • Interjections(ah, oh wow)

  • Condensedquestions(Moremilk? Anyluck?)

  • Echoquestions(Oh didyou say San Fransisco?)

  • Responseforms(yeahor sure toacknowledge a request)

  • Fixedpolitespeechformulae(Happybirthday!)


Problems with grammar rules
PROBLEMS WITH GRAMMAR RULES

  • Withgrammarruleswe can createinfinitenumber of sentences.Somerulesareeasytounderstand but somearesocomplex.

  • Michael Swansuggest a number of measures of a goodrule.Theseinclude‘’simplicity’’ , ‘’truth’’ , ‘’clarity’’ and‘’relevance’’.



Language in use1
LANGUAGE IN USE

  • Thewordsweuseandwhattheymeanare not thesamething.Wechoosewordsandphrasestohavedifferenteffectsfromthesurfacemeaning.

  • Forthiswehavefourprinciples: Purpose , Appropriacy , Language in DiscourseandGenre.


Purpose
PURPOSE

  • Wehave a purpose in mindwhichwewishtoachieve.

  • Forexample: It’scoldhere. (Requesttoclosethewindow)

  • Wouldyouliketocomefor a coffee?(Invitingandthepurpose is to be a goodhost)


Appropriacy
APPROPRIACY

  • Wouldyouliketocometothecinema?

  • Howaboutcomingtocinema?

  • Whataboutthecinema?

  • There’s a goodmovie on at thecinema.

  • Which form is themostappropriateforyou?


  • Thereare 5 principleswhichgovernourchoice:

  • Setting: weuseinformalspeech at home , whereaswemayusemoreformalspeech in an office.

  • Participants: whenwearetalkingtosuperiorsweuse a speechdifferentfromwhenwearetalkingtoourfriends , colleaguesormembers of ourfamilies.


  • Gender:researchshowswomen talk lesswhentheyaretalkingwithoppositesex.

  • Channel:weusedifferentlanguageswhentalking on thephone , facetofaceinteractionor in a hall in front of a crowd.

  • Topic:thetopicaffectsourgrammaticalchoices.Forexamplechildbirth is differentfromfootballorphysics.


Language as discourse
LANGUAGE AS DISCOURSE

  • JulianEdgeshowshowtypicalpattern of paragraphorganization is exemplified in a simplestory.

  • Situation

  • Problem

  • Response

  • Evaluation


  • Onceupon a time therewas a merchantsorichthat he couldhavepavedthestreets of his townwithsilver. (Situation)

  • But his wealthbroughthimlittlehappiness, because he wasallergictoalmosteverythingand had tostay in a sterile room. (Problem)

  • Indesperation he offeredhalf his fortunetoanyonewhocouldcure his allergies.Doctorscamefrom far andwide but not toavoil. (Response)

  • Unless he has died in themeantime he stillsitsheretoday, looking at pictures of theworldoutside. (Evaluation)


Genre
GENRE

  • As we can describedifferentkind of films, we can alsodescribedifferenttypes of writingfordifferentpurposes.

  • Forexample: Scientificwriting , reportwritingorjournalism.

  • Theseallowstudentstoreadorwritewith a greaterunderstanding of howsuchtextsareconstructed.



Shrugging shoulders may indicate i don t know
Shruggingshouldersmayindicate ‘’I don’tknow’’.


Crossing arms may indicate relaxation
Crossingarmsmayindicaterelaxation.


Gestures1
GESTURES

  • Weusegesturestoindicate a widerange of meaningsbut somegesturesmay be specifictoparticularcultures.


Proximity posture and echoing
PROXIMITY , POSTURE AND ECHOING

  • Thephysicaldistancebetweenspeakers can indicate a number of things.

  • Closenessindicatethreat but distancemayindicatelack of interest.



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