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Landfill Gas To Energy (LFGTE) Solutions. 1. An Independent global leader in LFGTE projects. ‘ Phase 1 ’ Green-house gas abatement. ‘ Phase 2 ’ Electricity generation. ‘ Services ’ Consulting business. 1. An independent global leader in LFGTE projects. Overview of activities.

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slide3

‘Phase 1’ Green-house gas abatement

‘Phase 2’ Electricity generation

‘Services’ Consulting business

1. An independent global leader in LFGTE projects

Overview of activities

  • Sourcing/analysis, financing, construction of landfill gas projects
  • CDM registration with UNFCCC
  • Feasibility study, financing, installation of waste-to-energy units
  • Carbon credit related high value-added services for third parties
  • Operation & Maintenance of proprietary landfill gas flaring units
  • Continuous compliance with UNFCCC regulations
  • Operation & maintenance of proprietary power generation units
  • CDM consulting services
  • CDM outsourcing services
  • Advisory on corporate carbon strategies
  • Issuance of CERs by UNFCCC
  • Production of electricity & heat
  • Issuance of additional CERs by UNFCCC
  • Consulting fees
  • Percentage of clients projects CERs

Sale of CERs

Sale of electricity & heat

Sale of services

  • 18 landfill gas exploitation contracts signed in 10 emerging countries (6 in Latin America, 4 in South-East Asia)
  • 9 biogas flaring units already in operation and 7 under construction
  • 50 biogas projects at various stages of evaluation or prospection, in over 15 emerging countries
  • Phase 2 was launched in November 2010 at the KPS site in Thailand
  • 11 prospective projects expected to reach phase 2 by 2013, for a total installed capacity of 30 MW
  • Unique expertise in Clean Development Mechanism registration & compliance
  • A team of dedicated experts with a track record of successfully registering the world’s largest CDM proprietary landfill gas project portfolio
  • Recognized by market leaders such as Rhodia, Air Liquide…

3

slide4

1. An independent global leader in LFGTE projects

A unique vertically integrated developer and operator

Bionersis expetise covers the entire value chain…

  • Expertise in site identification and evaluation
    • 7 dedicated employees
    • Expertise in gauging output of sites and necessary investments based on extensive experience and in-house developed evaluation models
  • Operation & Maintenance of sites
    • 23 dedicated employees
    • Extensive experience in operation & maintenance of LFG capture and utilization projects
    • O&M supported by remote monitoring of units
  • Site development & construction know-how
    • 11 dedicated employees
    • Negotiation of contracts with landfill operators
    • Equipment sourcing and installation execution know-how
  • Expertise in CDM registration process within the UNFCCC framework
    • 7 dedicated employees
    • 100% of submitted projects successfully registered
    • Registration process twice as fast as industry average

… with a significant track record

World’s most active LFG project registrant

  • 16 landfill gas exploitation contracts signed in 10 emerging countries (6 in Latin America, 4 in South-East Asia)
  • 9 LFG units already in operation and 7 under construction
  • 50 LFG projects at various stages of evaluation or prospection, in over 15 emerging countries
  • 1st French promoter of Clean Development Mechanism (‘CDM’) projects through the Kyoto Protocol, in terms of the number of Letters of Approval
  • Leader in the sector of Landfill Gas CDM projects with 22% of global market in 2009 (in terms of projects registered during the year)
  • Most importantly, an operator with a unique experience in managing CDM projects since the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol

LFG projects registered with UNFCCC in 2009

LFG projects registered with UNFCCC in 2009

Source: UNEP RISØ

Source: Company information

4

slide6

2. Business Description

Business process

Landfill Operator

Gas exploitation right

Cash

Landfill gas

capture

Gas acquisition

Landfill gas destruction

Green-House Gas Emission reductions

Carbon trading

Electricity generation

Carbon consulting & outsourcing

CER issuance

Certification

Intra company CER transfer

Sale of

CERs

Sale of

electricity

Sale of

services

Cash

Cash

Cash & CERs

Phase 1

Phase 2

Services

CER clients:

Others (market buyers)

  • Electricity
  • offtakers:
  • Local Utilities
  • & distributors
  • Industrial partners
  • Service clients
  • CDM project developers
  • Large industrial

6

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i

i

ii

ii

iii

iii

2. Business Description

Project operations & CDM compliance

Phase 1

Landfill gas capture though a network of wells

1

Flare

Monitoring of volumes & methane content of the extracted LFG

1

Landfill site

Mon

Gas extraction and transmission using a blower

2

Landfill gas

3

Mon

Gas flaring (methane destruction)

3

2

Phase 2

Gas cooling & condensation

Blower

4

Electricity generation

5

Electricity transmission to power grid or on-site use

Heat exchangers

6

7

Heat generation

[possible development of CHP on selected sites]

7

Gas chiller & condenser

Engine exhaust

Air separator

Expansion tank

4

Water circulation pump

Preparation & submission of Monitoring Reports

i

6

Power grid

Generator set

Verification through an independent review

ii

5

Mon

Certification of emission reductions & Issuance of CERs

iii

Source: AEI Affiliated Engineers

7

slide9

Total

  • CER registered: 9,099,000
  • Average lifespan: 8.3 years
  • CER total(1): 11,875,000

Manizales – Colombia

Penang – Malaysia

Hanoi – Vietnam

KPS – Thailand

Villavicencio - Colombia

La Duquesa – Dom. Rep.

Pasto – Colombia

La Habana - Cuba

Bucaramanga – Colomb.

Mendoza - Argentina

Batam – Indonesia

Cucuta – Colombia

  • Status: validation
  • CER:307,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: regis. Apr 10
  • CER:2,519,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: validation
  • CER:1,562,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: regis. Feb 09
  • CER: 772,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status: regis. Sep 09
  • CER:306,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status: compl. check
  • CER:297,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status: compl. check
  • CER:342,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: regis. Aug 10
  • CER:650,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status: regis. Oct 10
  • CER: 2,579,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: regis. Nov 09
  • CER:249,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status: compl. check
  • CER:267,000
  • Lifespan: 7 years
  • Status: regis. Sep 09
  • CER:1,186,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years

Quilpue - Chile

San Felipe - Chile

Vina Del Mar - Chile

Punta Arenas - Chile

Registered projects

  • Status: regis. Jan 09
  • CER:125,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status:regis. Jan 09
  • CER:144,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status:regis. Jul 08
  • CER:323,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years
  • Status:regis. Jul 08
  • CER:247,000
  • Lifespan: 10 years

Projects under registration or validation

4. Phase 1: Emission Reductions

Global resources for emission reductions

Note (1): CER total = CER registered + CER in the CDM pipeline according to PDD

9

slide10

4. Phase 1: Emission Reductions

Project process (1/2)

Prospection & Construction process

  • Headed by Regional Directors Pascal Le Mélinaire (LatAm) & Pascal Voisin (S-E Asia)
  • 43 dedicated employees worldwide

1

2

3

4

Project identification & evaluation

Negotiation with site owner/operator

Construction of site

Testing

Operation

Project lifecycle

1 – 2 months

6 – 12 months

3 – 6 months

1 month

CDM validation & registration process

  • Headed by Stéphane Vidaillet
  • 7 dedicated employees worldwide

1

2

3

Project Design

&

National approval

Project validation by independent auditor

Registration by UNFCCC Executive Board

Monitoring, Verification & Certification

1 month

1 – 2 months

7 – 10 months

Project lifecycle

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slide11

4. Phase 1: Emission Reductions

Project process (2/2)

Prospection & Construction process

Project identification & evaluation

Site construction

Testing

Negotiation with site owner/operator

1

3

4

2

  • Identification of landfills for potential projects based on a wide variety of criteria
  • Evaluation of methane potential using 3 international methodologies (FOD, MEX and CAM) relying on conservative estimates
  • Due to its recognition, Bionersis is now directly invited to bid for projects
  • Negotiation of gas exploitation contracts for a period of 10 years with landfill owner/ operator
  • Negotiation of gas supply price
    • Usually based on volumes to be produced
    • Contracts sometimes include a small participation in carbon credit price upside
  • Landfill shaping to facilitate future operations (rainwater evacuation, gas circulation within the pipe network, leachate management…)
  • Landfill cover with a layer of clay to contain the methane and prevent GHG emissions
  • Construction of a concrete slab to support the flare unit
  • Drilling of vertical wells inside the landfill at regular intervals to extract the gas
  • Linking of gas pipes into main pipe
  • Installation of flare, blower, monitoring equipment
  • Connection of main pipe to the blower & flare
  • Testing & validation of major operating assumptions and technical settings to be applied to equipment (pipe network, blower, flare, leachate management system)
  • Stabilization of gas flow for future operations

CDM validation & registration process

Project design & National approval

Project validation

UNFCCC registration

1

2

3

  • Preparation of a project design document (PDD) making use of approved emissions baseline and monitoring methodology
  • Securing a Letter of Approval (LoA) from the Designated National Authority (DNA) of the host country
  • Independent evaluation of a project activity by a designated operational entity against the requirements of the CDM, on the basis of the project design document
  • Formal acceptance of a validated project as a CDM project activity
  • Registration is the prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of CERs UNFCCC registration is effective for either 1x10 years or 3x 7years

11

slide12

4. Phase 1: Emission Reductions

Landfill gas – a significant and recognized GHG abatement source

Landfills - a major source of greenhouse gas emissions

Increasing number of landfill sites due to global urbanization

Global anthropogenic GHG emissions (2004, in terms of CO2-eq.)

Urban population by region (billions)

  • 14% of GHG stem from methane (CH4), of which 15% are from landfills
  • Methane has a global warming potential (GWP) of 21, i.e. it is a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide
  • Methane, which is less soluble in water than CO2 and lighter than air, is likely to migrate out of landfills
  • Number and size of landfill sites will match growth of urban population
  • 2,275 cities of more than 100,000 people in 2009, expected to increase to 2,943 in 2015

Recognized by Carbon Credit schemes

Recent developments

Indexed capex (€/CO2t/year)

  • Landfill gas destruction is incentivized for a variety of reasons:
    • Valorization of environmental nuisance (GHG emission reductions & potential power generation)
    • Biogas destruction is based on a quantifiable and verifiable methodology
    • An alternative to CO2-intensive waste incinerators
  • Recognized by UN’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) schemes:
    • 171 CDM landfill gas projects registered to date
    • 50 JI landfill gas projects registered to date
  • Under US carbon credit scheme
    • Landfill methane covered in Waxman-Markey and latest Kerry-Lieberman bill

Source: UNEP RISØ, capex of all projects (registered & rejected) based on PDD

Source: EPA, UN World Urbanisation Prospects, 2009 revision, UNEP RISØ

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slide14

Total

  • Methane reserves(1): 1,014m cbm
  • 28 units for potential 31MW capacity

Villavicencio - Colombia

La Habana - Cuba

Mendoza - Argentina

Penang – Malaysia

Bucaramanga – Colomb.

Pasto – Colombia

Nonthaburi – Thailand

Manizales – Colombia

KPS – Thailand

Hanoi – Vietnam

Batam – Indonesia

La Duquesa – Dom. Rep.

Cucuta – Colombia

  • Start year: 2011
  • Reserves: 263.9m cbm
  • Units: 9
  • Start year: 2012
  • Reserves:202.2m cbm
  • Units: 7
  • Start year: 2012
  • Reserves:42.5m cbm Units: 1
  • Start year: 2013
  • Reserves:21.3m cbm
  • Units: 1
  • Start year: 2012
  • Reserves: 145.2m cbm
  • Units: 2
  • Start year: 2012
  • Reserves:18.3m cbm
  • Units: 1
  • Start year: 2013
  • Reserves: 31.1m cbm
  • Units: 1
  • Start year:2012
  • Reserves: 28.4m cbm
  • Units: 1
  • Start year: n/a
  • Reserves: 44.6m cbm
  • Units: 0
  • Start year: 2013
  • Reserves: 35.0m cbm
  • Units: 1
  • Start year: 2011
  • Reserves: 78.6m cbm
  • Units: 3
  • Start year: n/a
  • Reserves: 21.0m cbm
  • Units: 0
  • Start year: 2013
  • Reserves:30.3m cbm
  • Units: 1

Quilpue - Chile

Punta Arenas - Chile

San Felipe - Chile

Vina Del Mar - Chile

Registered projects

  • Start year: n/a
  • Reserves: 16.7m cbm
  • Units: 0
  • Start year: n/a
  • Reserves: 8.8m cbm
  • Units: 0
  • Start year:n/a
  • Reserves: 7.3m cbm
  • Units: 0
  • Start year:n/a
  • Reserves: 20.0m cbm
  • Units: 0

Projects under registration or validation

5. Phase 2: Electricity Generation

Global resources for emission reductions and potential installed capacity

Note (1): Gas reserves of current portfolio over 2011-2020, based on PDD data

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slide15

Landfill gas

Solar

Wind

Hydro

Independence to weather / baseload capacity

√ √ √

X

X

Proximity to consumption centers

√ √ √

√ √

X

X

Low capital cost per output

√ √

X

√ √

√ √

Low balance of system costs

√ √ √

√ √

Resource availability

√ √ √

√ √

Energy output for a 1MW capacity standard unit

8,000 MWh/y

1,300 MWh/y

2,800 MWh/y

6,000 MWh/y

5. Phase 2: Electricity Generation

Landfill gas: a unique alternative power source

  • Methane powered electricity generators can run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (excluding maintenance downtime)
  • Waste-to-energy units are always located near densely populated areas and do not require costly infrastructure to deliver electricity directly to consumers
  • Landfill gas generation units consist of fairly common technology (gas engines), easily accessible from emerging countries, so that sourcing, operation and maintenance don’t require any specialized engineering
  • Though there are only limited quantities of landfill gas – as opposed to infinite potential reserves of sunlight or wind – the resource remains widely untapped and generation capacity from solid waste worldwide is far from ever reaching the level of landfill gas reserves turnover…

Source: Bryan Garnier

15

slide17

Appendix

Glossary

  • AAU: Assigned Amount Unit. Allowances for carbon emissions allocated to developed countries up to their target level under the Kyoto Protocol. These allowances are tradable under Kyoto\'s international emission trading mechanisms in place from 2008 to 2012. Each AAU equates to one tonne of CO2e.
  • Annex I, Annex B: The signatory nations to the Kyoto Protocol that are subject to caps on their emissions of greenhouse gases and committed to reduction targets – countries with developed economies. Annex I refers to the 36 countries identified for reduction in the UNFCCC while the Annex B is an adjusted list of 39 countries identified under the more recent Kyoto Protocol. Annex B countries have their reduction targets formally stated.
  • CDM: Clean Development Mechanism. A Kyoto Protocol initiative under which projects set up in developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generate tradable credits called CERs, the first step towards a global carbon market. These credits can be used by industrialized nations to offset carbon emissions at home and meet their Kyoto reduction targets. The projects include renewable energy generation, reforestation and clean fuels switching.
  • CER: Certified Emission Reduction. A credit generated under Kyoto’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases equal to one tonne of CO2- equivalent. They are designed to be used by industrialized countries to count toward their Kyoto targets but can also be used by EU companies and governments as offsets against their emissions under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.
  • Copenhagen Accord: The four-nation agreement struck by the US, China, India and South Africa at the 2009 Copenhagen climate conference and noted by the UN climate convention Council of the Parties. A limited political deal that the signatories hope will form the basis of a new global climate agreement from 2013.
  • ERPA: Emissions Reduction Purchase Agreement. Contracts governing the sale of CER carbon credits from UN CDM and JI projects. Heavily used for forward sales of CERs not yet issued, in projects under development, as a means of project financing. The price of such primary CERs is discounted in ERPAs to reflect the risks of non-delivery.
  • ERU: Emission Reduction Unit. Tradable credits generated from activities to reduce greenhouse emissions in in industrialized countries, particularly those of the former Soviet-bloc, under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism.
  • EU ETS: EU Emission Trading Scheme. In 2005, the European Union introduced a market in carbon dioxide emissions for major emitting industries. The scheme is based on the allocation of carbon emission allowances, called EU Allowances (EUAs), to specific industrial sectors through national allocation plans (NAPs) that cap the total level of emissions at levels which reduce over time. The EU ETS applies to 7,300 companies and 11,500 installations in sectors with high carbon dioxide emissions across the 27 nations of the EU. These include: energy utilities, oil refineries, iron and steel producers, the pulp and paper industry as well as producers of cement, glass, lime, brick and ceramics. Aviation and aluminium are to be included in future years. The scheme is regulated by the European Commission (EC).
  • EUA: European Union Allowances. Tradable emission credits from the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Each allowance carries the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide.
  • GHG: Green Houses Gas. The three most important greenhouse gases are: carbon dioxide (CO2), the biggest contributor to global warming; methane (CH4), eg. from decomposing landfill and flatulent cattle; nitrous oxide (N20), eg. from vehicle exhaust fumes. There are also three other industrial gases that contribute to global warming: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), used for refrigeration; perfluorocarbons (PFCs), produced in the making of semi-conductors; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), a by-product of aluminium manufacturing and the electronics industry.

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slide18

Appendix

Glossary

  • JI: Joint Implementation. A Kyoto Protocol mechanism which allows developed countries, particularly those in transition to a market economy, to host carbon-reducing projects funded by another developed country. The arrangement sees the credits generated, called ERUs, go to the investor country while the emission allowances (AAUs) of the host country are reduced by the same amount.
  • Kyoto Protocol: This agreement, which came into force in 2005, commits developed nations collectively to cut their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2 per cent of 1990 levels by 2012. By 2007, 175 countries had ratified the agreement, including most of the world\'s developed nations. The Kyoto Protocol was struck in 1997in Kyoto, Japan, when member nations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed that developed countries must reduce their emissions of six greenhouse gases to meet the overall target, with specific targets varying from country to country. The Protocol came into force in February 2005 and includes 35 developed countries that account for 61.6 per cent of total world carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Leachate: Liquid (usually from rainwater) that percolates through waste material in a landfill. As the water moves through the waste, it picks up contaminants from the waste material, and it must be collected and properly disposed of, to avoid transferring the contaminants to groundwater.
  • LoA: Letter of Approval. With the issuance of a Letter of Approval the Host Country formally approves the project for the purposes of Article 6 or 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, and confirms that the project assists the Host Country in achieving sustainable development. A Letter of Approval is a requirement for all JI and CDM activities under the Kyoto Protocol and is therefore a prerequisite for the signing of an ERPA with the CFU Trustee.
  • Offsets: Carbon offsets, offset credits. Credits issued in return for a reduction of atmospheric carbon emissions through projects such as the provision of renewable energy to replace fossil fuel energy, or reforesting cleared land to create a carbon sink. By paying for such emission reducing activities, individuals and organisations can use the resulting credits to offset their own emissions, either voluntarily or under the rules of most emissions trading schemes. One offset credit equates to an emission reduction of one tonne of CO2. See also CER.
  • PDD: Project Design Document. The official application drawn up by an entity applying for project approval under the UN Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or a verification standard in the voluntary carbon market. PDDs must be validated by an independent third party, then approved and registered by the CDM Executive Board or voluntary standard provider before a project qualifies as a CER or VER carbon credit earner.
  • RGGI: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. A ten-state regional US emissions cap-and-trade scheme covering power plants from 2009. Scheduled to run until the end of 2018 unless superseded by a federal scheme, current members are Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont.
  • tCO2e, MtCO2e: Tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, and millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. This is the metric measurement unit for greenhouse emissions. The global warming impact of all greenhouse gases is measured in terms of equivalency to the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, one million tonnes of emitted methane, a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, is measured as 21 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent, or 21 MtCO2e.
  • UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Also referred to informally as the UN climate change convention. It is the international agreement for action on climate change and was drawn up in 1992. A framework was agreed for action aimed at stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC entered into force on March 1994 and currently has 192 signatory parties. The UNFCCC in turn

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