Chapter 30 Oxygen Needs. Oxygen (O2) is a gas. It has no taste, odor, or color. Oxygen is needed for life. Every cell needs oxygen. The respiratory and cardiovascular systems must function properly for cells to get enough oxygen.
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Chapter 30Oxygen Needs
The Respiratory Systembrings oxygen into the lungs and it rids the body
of carbon dioxide. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between
the alveoli and capillaries
Parts of the Respiratory System
7. Bronchi & Bronchioles
8. Alveoli & capillaries
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the alveoli and
capillaries. Blood in the capillaries pick up oxygen from the alveoli.
The blood returns to the L side of the heart (left atrium) and pumped
to the body.
2. Factors that affect Oxygen Needs:
Hypoxia – cells do not have enough oxygen(restless, disoriented, agitated, pulse rate, pallor cyanosis) hypoxia is life threatening restlessness is an early sign.
Tachypnea/hyperpnea: rapid breathing, respirations are more than 20 per minute
Bradypnea/hypopnea: Slow breathing, respirations are fewer than 12 per minute
Apnea: lack of or absence of breathing
Dyspnea: Difficult, labored, or painful breathing
Cheyne-stokes: increase in rate and depth then shallow and slow breathing may stop for 10-20 seconds. Common when death is near.
Orthopnea: Breathing deeply and comfortably only when sitting
Orthopneic position: sitting up and leaning over a table to breath
Shortness of Breath (SOB): is difficulty breathing or pain on breathing.
It is a common symptom with emphysema and COPD
Aspiration: breathing fluid, food, vomitus or an object into the lungs.
Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchioles
Pneumonia: inflammation of the lung tissue, caused by infection and results in impaired gas exchange
Asthma:condition that affects the bronchi & bronchioles of the lungs. Triggers (allergies, smoke) cause the bronchi to narrow and make it hard to breath.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease: Lung disorders – emphysema, chronic bronchitis, leading cause is smoking.
Emphysema: after prolonged COPD, destruction of the lungs occurs
Tuberculosis:an airborne infection caused by a bacterium that usually infects the lungs
4. What to report to the nurse:
-hypoxia (see S&S in box 28-1)
-SOB or complaints of being “winded” or “short-winded”
- cough (note description)
- sputum – mucus from respiratory tract; color, odor, consistency
- noisy respirations
- chest pain
- changes in Vital Signs
-apnea ( no breathing)
5. Ways to promote Oxygen:
To get enough oxygen, air must move deep into the lungs.
A: Positioning: Persons who have difficulty breathing
prefer sittingup(semi-fowlers) or leaning over
a table (orthopneic position). Frequent position
changes are needed.
B: Turn, Cough, Deep Breathing (TCDB): coughing removes mucus. Deep
breathing moves air into the lungs.
- prevents pneumonia and atelectasis (collapse of a portion
of the lung
- They are done after surgery or injury and during bedrest.
C: Incentive Spirometry: device that measures the
amount (volume) of air inhaled.
*Goal is to improve lung function
D: Pulse oximetry: measures oxygen concentration in arterial
*NormalRange is 95-100 SpO2
*it can be attached to the finger, toe, earlobe
*Tell nurse right away if alarm sounds – CNA’s do NOT turn alarms off!
6. Oxygen Therapy: Is considered a DRUG
CNA’s are not responsible for administering oxygen. Doctor’s order
amount, device to use and when it is given.
B. Humidifier: Oxygen is dry gas. Oxygen dries the airways mucous membranes.
Distilled water is added to the humidifier to create water vapors. Make
sure water bottle does not get too low. If the water gets to low and not
bubbling the humidifier is not working.
**CNA’s do not administer oxygen, do not adjust flow rate, and never shut off oxygen!**
7. Artificial Airways: are used to keep the airway open.
Intubation: inserting an artificial airway into the trachea.
Tracheostomy: is temporary or permanent and should be covered by a gauze dressing
A. Measures are needed to prevent aspiration.
Nothing can enter the stoma.
- do not have loose gauze or lint
- covered when you go outside
- take tub baths instead of showers
- be careful when shampooing
- person with a tracheostomy may
have a hard time communicating.
B. Causes: smoking ,diseased, injury, secretions,
or aspiration obstructs the airway.
Unconscious or recovering from anesthesia.
8. Mechanical Ventilation:
Alarms sound when something is wrong. First make sure tube is
attached to the ventilator. If not…attach the tube and get the nurse.
**Never turn off alarms**
Hypoxia: the cells do not have enough oxygen (hypo-decreased, oxia-oxygen)
Individuals who have a chest tube, artificial airway and or on a
mechanical ventilator is at risk for HYPOXIA.
Signs and symptoms of hypoxia: BOX 28-1
- restlessness- dizziness
- disorientation- confusion
- apprehension- agitation