Discovery. William Beaumont
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1. Electrogastrogram Jayson
2. Discovery William Beaumont– 1833
First to notice gastric psychological changes induced by various emotions.
Later noted emotion causes increased and decreased gastric acid formation
Also causes reflux of bile into stomach causing the slowing of gastric emptying
3. October 14, 1921
First recording of Electrogastrogram
Scientists begin to discover changes due to specific stimuli such as stress and anxiety
Use EEG to measure gastric emptying
Recent research has shown that improving quality of life will improve gastrointestinal disease.
4. What is EGG Like EKG and heart
Measures muscle activity related to the stomach and abdominal region.
Measured from a baseline reading containing a regular rhythm. In a normal subject a current increase is observed after a meal.
Still an early experimental procedure because it has yet to become a standard medical procedure.
5. Gastrointestinal Problems Nausea
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
6. Nausea Uneasy feeling; feeling of vomiting
Commonly associated with stomach but including all parts of the body
Brought on by any and all physiological stimuli
May cause dehydration or esophageal erosion and irritation
7. Gastric Reflux Very common
Reflux of stomach content into esophagus
Causes damage to lining if occurring often
Heartburn, burning pain
Treatable with weight reduction, avoiding food and activities that cause reflux, avoiding situations that cause reflux, and some medication.
8. Peptic Ulcers Break in surface of organ
Excessive HCl formation, infection, some drugs (asprin, anti inflammatory)
Indigestion, nausea, vomiting, bleeding
Monitor pH levels in stomach
Use biofeedback to maintain appropriate HCl amounts
9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Most common psychophysiological disease
Caused by stress and anxiety and effects all parts of the digestive tract
Stress increases corticotropin-releasing factors from brain inhibiting gastric emptying
10. IBS (Cont) Causes various symptoms: abdominal pain, altered bowel habit, bloating, bowel noises, indigestion, nausea, headaches, etc.
Avoid problematic food, improve bowel function, antidepressant medication, relaxation therapy, psychological counseling
11. Cirrhosis Extended liver damage
Not directly caused by emotional stimuli
Alcohol abuse, drug abuse (hepatitis), AIDs
Generally found amoung older individuals
12. References Mai FM. 1988. Beaumont’s Contribution to gastric psychophysiology: a reappraisal. Can J Psychiatry. 33: 650-653.
Muth ER, Koch KL, Stern RM, Thayer JF. 1999. Effect of autonomic nervious system manipulations on gastric myoelectrical activity and emotional responses in healthy human subjects. Psychosom Med. 61: 297-303.
13. Electrogastrography (EGG)
14. Electrogastrography How it works.
Data acquisition and analysis.
Capabilities and limitations of EGG.
15. How EGG Works Very similar to EKG.
Recording of electrical signals produced by the muscles of the stomach that control constriction.
16. Difficulties The main difficulty is the human EGG signal.
3 cycles/min sinusoid.
Data obtained is difficult to analyze and abnormalities difficult to define.
Interference from the duodenum and from the transverse and descending colon.
17. Precautions Optimal recording conditions.
Electrodes produce noise to an extent.
Noise must be reduced (0-0.5Hz).
Electrodes should be recessed.
Ideally impedance below 10 Kila-ohmes.
18. EGG setup EGG signal is recorded by electrodes that are placed over the upper abdomen.