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Secure Software Development. Risk-Based Security Testing Chapter 7 Rasool Jalili & M.S. Dousti Dept. of Computer Engineering Fall 2010. Risk-Based Security Testing. Security testing.

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slide1

Secure Software Development

Risk-Based Security Testing

Chapter 7

Rasool Jalili & M.S. Dousti

Dept. of Computer Engineering

Fall 2010

slide3
Security testing
  • Security testing has recently moved beyond the realm of network port scanning to include probing software behavior as a critical aspect of system behavior.
  • Security testing done properly goes much deeper than simple black box probing on the presentation layer
  • and even beyond the functional testing of security mechanism.
  • Testers must carry out a risk-based approach, grounded in both the system\'s architectural reality and the attacker\'s mindset.
  • By identifying risks in the system and creating tests driven by those risks, a software security tester can properly focus on areas of code where an attack is likely to succeed.
slide4

The main difference of security testing and pentest:

    • the level of approach and
    • the timing of the testing itself.
    • Pen-testing happens once software is complete and installed in its operational environment. Also, penetration testing is focused outsidein and is somewhat brief.
    • Security testing can be applied before the software is complete, at the unit level, in a testing environment with stubs and pre-integration.
    • Should start at the feature or component/unit level, prior to system integration.
slide5

Security unit testing carries the benefit of breaking system security down into a number of discrete parts.

  • Theoretically, if each component is implemented safely and fulfills inter-component design criteria, the greater system should be in reasonable shape.
  • Security testing should continue at the system level and should be directed at properties of the integrated software system.
  • This is precisely where penetration testing meets security testing.
  • Finally, abuse cases developed earlier in the lifecycle should be used to enhance a test plan with adversarial tests based on possible abuse scenarios.
  • Security testing involves as much black hat thinking as white hat thinking.
slide6
From OutsideIn to InsideOut
  • Traditional approaches to computer and network security testing focus on network infrastructure, firewalls, and port scanning.
  • This is especially true of network and software penetration testing (application penetration testing).
  • Better penetration testing approaches take architectural risks, code scanning results, and security requirements into account,
  • but still focus on an outsidein perspective.
  • A classic outsidein paradigm focusing on firewall placement.
slide7

Problem: the perimeter is only apparent at the network/packet level.

  • At the level of software applications, the perimeter has all but disappeared.
  • That\'s because firewalls have been configured (or mis-configured, depending on your perspective) to allow advanced applications to tunnel right through them.
  • A good example of this phenomenon is the SOAP protocol, which is designed (on purpose) to carry traffic through port 80 for various different applications.
  • In some sense, SOAP is an anti-security device invented by software people.
  • In the brave new world of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for applications, we should not be surprised that the firewall is quickly becoming irrelevant.
  • By contrast, in an insideoutapproach to security, whereby software is itself subjected to rigorous risk management and security testing.
slide8
What\'s So Different about Security?
  • Software security is about making software behave in the presence of a malicious attack.
  • Standard software testing literature is only concerned with what happens when software fails, regardless of intent.
  • Software security - Software safety =an intelligent adversary.
  • Most safety-critical systems (and high-assurance systems) posit a white hat world.
  • Fact is, we live in a world with plenty of black hats as well, and we need to address that (head on).
  • Attackers generally don\'t care whether a vulnerability is due to a flaw or a bug, although bugs tend to be easier to exploit.
  • Design-level vulnerabilities are the hardest defect category to handle.
slide10
Risk Management and Security Testing
  • Different tasks to manage software security risks, such as:
    • Creating security abuse/misuse cases
    • Listing normative security requirements (and security features and functions)
    • Performing architectural risk analysis
    • Building risk-based security test plans
    • Using static analysis tools
    • Performing security tests
    • Performing penetration testing in the final environment
    • Cleaning up security breaches
slide11

Do not forget: Software security is notsecurity software.

  • So, SWS testing must necessarily involve two diverse approaches:
    • Functional security testing: testing security mechanisms
    • Adversarial security testing: performing risk-based security testing motivated by simulating the attacker\'s approach
  • Together, these two distinct activities are a mix of white hat (security functionality) and black hat (security attack) philosophies.
  • Wrong belief: liberal application and use of various security features "adding SSL“ to securing an application.
  • Software security practitioners regret the over-reliance on "magic crypto fairy dust“.
slide12
How to Approach Security Testing
  • Security testing: determining who should do the testing and what activities they should undertake.
  • Who?
    • Standard testing organizations using a traditional approach  functional security testing.
    • Traditional QA staff? They have more difficulty due to the lack of expertise.
      • Security tests are difficult to design, due to thinking like an attacker.
      • Security tests don\'t often cause direct security exploit.
    • Bottom line: Risk-based security testing relies more on expertise and security experience (not testing experience).
slide13

How:

    • Books; helps a lot …
    • White & Black box testing with/ without having access to source.
  • In Black Box testing, malicious input in an effort to break the program;
  • Any testing method can reveal possible software risks and potential exploits.
  • However, One problem with security testing (black or white box) is the lack of it.
  • There is no end-point for software security; even a reasonable security testing regimen is just a start.
  • Unfortunately, security is being sold as a product, and most defensive mechanisms on the market do little to address the heart of the problem, which is bad software.
  • Any testing approach is deeply impacted by software process issues.
slide14
Thinking about (Malicious) Input
  • The biggest problems in software security AS software takes input.
  • Trust the input is a critical question that all software builders must consider.
  • From buffer overflow (which involves putting too much input in too small a place) to SQL injection attack and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, trusting input is the common root cause.
  • Carefully handling input is dominant to software security.
  • If your program consumes data from "out there," you need to think carefully about who can feed and the stuff your program eats.
  • STOMATH IS THE ROOT OF ALL DESEASES.
  • Attacker toolkits focus plenty of attention on input, with a plenty of fault injection tools, re-players, and the like.
  • By its very nature, penetration testing is focused on input as well
  • If your program accepts input over the network, it needs to be very doubtful of what it is getting.
  • Using a black-list approach (which tries to enumerate all possible bad input) will not work. Instead, software needs to defend its input space with a white-list approach.
slide15
Getting Over Input
  • Testing around malicious input is a necessary but not sufficient condition.
  • Security testing needs to focusing on data structures, components, APIs, program state, and so on.
  • In addition to building tests around risks that remain in the system, testers should consider things like:
    • Sockets
    • Pipes
    • The Win32 Registry
    • Files
    • Remote procedure calls (RPCs)
    • Command-line arguments
    • ….
  • Time is a critical issue; two major aspects of time to consider
  • One problem is that most developers are unfamiliar with the effects of multithreading on their systems. That means they often overlook subtle time-based attacks.
slide16

Unless a security tester thinks like a bad guy (black hat firmly on head), security testing will not be effective.

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