Vet vs general education in macedonia education policy perspective
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VET vs general education in macedonia : Education policy perspective. “VET for social inclusion in the Western Balkans and Turkey: towards Regional Actions”, Torino, 12-13 December 2011 Prepared by: Prof. Suzana Bornarova PhD Institute for Social Work and Social Policy

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VET vs general education in macedonia : Education policy perspective

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Vet vs general education in macedonia education policy perspective

VET vs general education in macedonia:Education policy perspective

“VET for social inclusion in the Western Balkans andTurkey: towards Regional Actions”, Torino, 12-13 December 2011

Prepared by:

Prof. SuzanaBornarova PhD

Institute for Social Work and Social Policy

Faculty of Philosophy, Skopje, Macedonia


Vet system

VET system

  • Delivered through 173 VET programmes within 110 USS and 6 higher vocational schools (2 public; 4 private; 6 semesters)

  • VET available for 30 occupations

  • Qualifications:

    - I-st level: training for jobs with lower requirements (up to 2 years)

    - II-nd level: vocational training for occupation (3 years)

    - III-rd level: technical education (4 years)

    - IV-th level: postsecondary education and training


Pupils students in upper secondary and higher vocational education

Pupils/students in upper-secondary and higher vocational education

Source: State Statistical Office


General vs vocational education programmes in upper secondary schools

General vs vocational education programmes in upper-secondary schools


Share of pupils in upper secondary education in 2001 2002 and 2009 2010

Share of pupils in upper-secondary education in 2001/2002 and 2009/2010


Uss according to language of instruction 2001 2002 and 2009 2010

USS according to language of instruction (2001/2002 and 2009/2010)


Pupils in general and vocational secondary schools per gender 2009 2010

Pupils in general and vocational secondary schools per gender 2009/2010


Effective educational practices

Effective educational practices

  • Programmes overburdened with theory:

    - II-nd level qualifications: The general education takes up 50% of the three year vocational education, the vocational theory 30% and the practical training 20%

  • III-rd level qualifications: general education takes up 45% technical education, the vocational theory 35%, the practical training 10 % and elective instructions 10% (final+matura exam).

  • Low level of provision of work place training opportunities by businesses and firms


Effective educational practices1

Effective educational practices

  • Inclusiveness or segregation:

  • Heterogeneous per: gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban, ability

  • Homogeneous : in some cases per ethnicity

  • Family/community involvement: parental meetings/school boards/individual contacts; disengagement of parents; no impact on decision-making in school; no involvement in curriculum development or evaluation; no internet/phone communcation; no involvement of community members nor community education

  • Academic expectations (of students, teachers, families): low aspirations; no individualised help to stimmulate academic endeavors


Effective educational practices2

Effective educational practices

  • VET teaching: insufficient teacher training (traditional teaching methods, authoritarian relations with students/families); human resources; technical/financial resources; ex-catedra instead of interactive approach; low student participation

  • Strategies used by VET schools to reduce school failure and increase social cohesion in school neighbourhood and communities are nearly non-existent

  • Cooperative learning (no peer-mentors/peer learning groups)

  • Democratic values in curriculum: citizen’s education instead of cross-culturalism; multiculturalism

  • Diversity consideration: gender stereotyping


Vet status

VET status

  • Reserved for students with lower educational achievements

  • Attracts minority students

  • Less strict entry criteria and study requirements (high pass rates)

  • Stigmatisation (VET for poor/GE for elite/well-off)

  • Related to lower socio-economic status of students


Labour market supply

Labour market supply


Vet vs general education educational policy perspective

VET vs General education: Educational policy perspective

  • Education as ALTERNATIVE to social protection:

    Higher investments in education lower investments in social protection and vice versa!

  • Education as INSTRUMENT for prevention of social exclusion


Vet vs general education educational policy perspective1

VET vs General education: Educational policy perspective


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