Classroom Inclusion of Students that are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
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Classroom Inclusion of Students that are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Together, we can accomplish this. “The most damaging phrase in the English language is, ‘ It’s always been done that way .’” Rear Admiral Grace Murry Hopper. . Simple Statistics.

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“The most damaging phrase in the English language is, ‘ It’s always been done that way .’”

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The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Classroom Inclusion of Students that are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Together, we can accomplish this.

“The most damaging phrase in the English language is, ‘It’s always been done that way.’”

Rear Admiral Grace Murry Hopper


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Simple Statistics

  • Approximately 6 million students (ages 6-21) are receiving service in the public schools for disabilities. 1

  • 1.2% of these students (70,000) received services for a hearing disability.

  • Studies have shown 14.9% of students have hearing loss of at least 16 dB hearing level in one or both ears.2

  • There are approximately 76 million students in the U.S.

  • 14.9% of 76 million is 11,342,000.

  • 11,342,000 who statistically should be getting services, versus 70,000 that actually are …

    • Niskar, A. S., et. al. (1998, April 8). Prevalence of hearing loss among children 6 to 19 years of age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 279(14): 1071–1075.

    • 2U.S. Department of Education. (2002). To assure the free appropriate public education of all Americans: Twenty-fourth annual report to Congress on the I implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. http://www.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2002/index.html.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Discussion Time

  • 11,342,000 who statistically should be getting services, versus 70,000 that actually are …

  • Why are the needs of these students not being met ???

  • What are your thoughts ???


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Here are some ideas that we’ve collected that teachers can take to make their classroom a supportive environment for students that are D/HH.

  • Let’s start with ideas that are totally free:

    • Make the classroom a friendly inclusive environment (e.g., hand out the signing sheet so other students can learn to sign their name as well as simple phrases – you’re not expecting the students to become proficient in sign language, just to make D/HH feel welcome).

    • Always repeat or rephrase questions or comments before responding.

    • Point to whomever is asking a question or making a comment.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are totally free (continued):

    • Face the class when speaking, and speak naturally.

    • Do not speak while writing on the whiteboard.

    • Speak from the front of the room versus pacing around and in between desks.

    • Do not stand in front of a window where bright background light and/or shadows will impede lip reading.

    • Do not “talk in the dark” such as when the lights are turned down for viewing a video.

    • Do not chew gum while lecturing.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are totally free (continued):

    • Avoid the temptation to “pick up the pace” when time is short or squeeze a last sentence of important instructions as the bell is ringing.

    • Remember that beards and mustaches can impede the ability for a person to read lips.

    • Do use facial expressions and gestures.

    • Write special announcements, assignments, etc. on the whiteboard.

    • Write technical terms, foreign words, formulas, etc.

    • Allow time for students to copy what you’ve written before you erase it.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are totally free (continued):

    • Use written tests versus oral tests.

    • Have the student sit in a location near the front of the classroom…

    • … and in a location closer to the windows than the far wall (glare on the whiteboard can be an issue)…

    • … and for a student that is HH, not near a ventilation duct.

    • For small groups, encourage a circular seating arrangement.

    • Repeat any announcements made over the Public Address system.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are totally free (continued):

    • Establish a “secret signal” that the student can use to inform you that they don’t understand an item.

    • And use videos that are closed captioned (not always free – more on that in a few slides).

    • Discussion Time… What other free ideas do you have?


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What Can you do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are expensive ($50K+ per student per year):

    • CART Systems

  • This is NOT real-time captioning

  • Around $75/hr …

  • … which means $75,000/year/student

  • Requires Broadband Access…

  • … and advanced planning.

  • What about outside of the classroom?


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are expensive($50K+ per student per year):

    • On Site Interpreters

  • Absolutely needed in some situations

  • Appx. $50/hr (with 2 hr minimum)

  • - Requires advanced planning and scheduling


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas that are expensive ($50K+ per student per year):

    • UbiDuo and having a person Type everything being said.

- Portable, but not mobile

- Req’s a desktop surface

- Costs $2K+$50K for typist

- Single purpose system

- Only supports typing

- Weighs 6 pounds, large in size


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas with some cost, but that are much more affordable.

    • Classroom amplification systems (around $2-3K). These have been shown to benefit all students.

    • Wireless FM microphone systems (around $200 to $2K).

    • Hearing Aids/CIs amplify all sounds -- try to reduce background noise by carpeting the classroom, putting pads on chairs/tables, etc.

    • Scheduling preference to native English speaking teachers; and for many students that are Hard of Hearing, a male voice is easier to understand.

    • Note takers in the classroom. More applicable to a college setting as part of a student’s work study financial aid package.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Ideas with some cost (continued):

    • Automated closed captioning software (around $1K).

    • Can be used anywhere and anytime, no internet connections, no advanced scheduling

    • Significant reduction in the “Triangle of Communications”.

Teacher  7 second delay  Interpreter/CART

Triangle of Communications

Student

Teacher  1 second delay  Automated

Student


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Closed Captioning Software

  • Dragon Naturally Speaking, v11

  • Software that you load onto your PC

  • Different “flavors”, ranging from $100 to $600

  • Need the $600 to support multiple users/voices

  • Optimized for dictation of memosversus classroom or conversational free speech.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Closed Captioning Software

  • Interact-AS from Auditory Sciences

  • Developed in partnership with the U.S. Marine Corps.

  • Supportsspeech, typing and handwriting.

  • Instantly closed-captions classroom conversations.

  • Enables hands-free typing (voice scribing).

  • Voices aloud what a student types or writes.

  • Also reads text in male or female voice, in multiple languages, at desired cadence.

  • Language Modules available for 36 languages.

  • Also includes a “Live Interpreter” feature where 180 languages are supported.

  • Runs on your PC, or you can purchase a preconfigured system:

    • $795 for an unlimited use software license.

    • Appx. $1.5K for a preconfigured system.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

What You Can do to Support These Students

  • Discussion…

    • What other ideas are you using ???


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Some Suggestions for Planning Transition

  • As students are transitioning out of your school.

    • Use communication tools that are portable, used everywhere, not just in the classroom.

    • If college is in the plans, select a college that supports students that are D/HH.

    • Best Practices for students attending a college

      • Use closed captioning software in the classroom

      • Talk with the campus schedulers to enable the student to have scheduling preference for professors that are native English speakers.

      • Ask the college if they will provide a “note taker” for each class.

      • Ask the college about tutors, do they have a tutor that supports a D/HH student?


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Demonstrations and “Give it a Try” Time

  • Demonstration of Closed Captioning software.

  • This is new to many individuals…

    • … so I thought I’d let you see it in action.


The most damaging phrase in the english language is it s always been done that way

Thanks for Attending

Contact Information:

Renee Seykora – Technology for Education

(651-457-1917; [email protected])

Robert Palmquist – Auditory Sciences

(507-664-9123 ext. 210; [email protected])

These slides are available for download by going to:

www.speechgear.com/presentations/ATIA-11-Chicago.pdf

or for the PowerPoint version, go to

www.speechgear.com/presentations/ATIA-11-Chicago.ppt


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