Chapter 18 Notes. The Scientific Revolution The enlightenment. The Scientific Revolution. Causes Astronomy Anatomy Science (and math) Effects. What were the CAUSES?. The Renaissance promoted a new way of thinking Exploration and expansion of trade
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The Scientific Revolution
Science (and math)
Kepler (and Brahe)
The Geocentric Theory
An Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
His achievements include:
Improvements to the telescope
Building the first telescope used for astronomy
Scanning the heavens beginning in 1609
In 1610, Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe.Galileo Galilei
English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.
He argued for the idea that blood was pumped around the body by the heart before returning to the heart and being re-circulated in a closed system.
Antony van leeowenhoek
Generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science.
Considered by many to be the most important figure in human history.Isaac Newton
An English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author.
Influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate of the scientific revolution
His works established and popularized an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method or simply, the scientific method.Francis Bacon
Dutch scientist, 1600s
Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope
First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms
•English physician, inventor
•Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level
•Credited with creating the term cell
It led to an increased use of reason an observation to explain nature
It created greater sense of need for instruments such as microscopes
It emphasized the scientific method
It promoted the expansion of knowledge by not accepting things on face value or faith
It increased the belief in progress and the power of reason
It led to a new view of the universe as a well-ordered system
What exciting conclusion did philosophers reach?
Reason could be used to solve all human problems.
(an absolute monarchy).
awesome power is what he called
a leviathan (sea monster),
therefore he titled his book
People were reasonable (though still selfish) and had the natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Purpose of government is to protect these natural rights.
Government power comes from the consent of the people (foundation for democracy).John Locke
Proposed natural rights to life, liberty, and property.the “separation of powers”
Executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government
Kept individuals or groups from abusing power
Proposed “checks and balances”
Allowed each branch to check against the power of the other two
Published The Spirit of the Laws
Showed admiration of Great Britain’s government (thought it was the best!)Baron de Montesquieu
especially the clergy.
but will defend to the death your right
to say it.”
•Views inspired revolutionaries in years to come
Scottish economist, used reason to analyze economic systems
The Wealth of Nations advanced free market enterprise
Strong believer in laissez-faire economics, no government regulation
Believed economy would be stronger if market forces of supply and demand were allowed to work freely
and chamber music
various instruments, and operas