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The Discrimination System:. Barbara Reskin Department of Sociology University of Washington, Seattle. Race and Public Policy. January 3, 2004. Heuristic Model of System Analysis. Subsystem B. Subsystem D. Subsystem A . Subsystem C. Disparities in Test Performance.

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The discrimination system l.jpg

The Discrimination System:

Barbara Reskin

Department of Sociology

University of

Washington, Seattle

Race and Public Policy

January 3, 2004


Heuristic model of system analysis l.jpg
Heuristic Model of System Analysis

Subsystem B

Subsystem D

Subsystem A

Subsystem C


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Disparities in

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


Slide4 l.jpg

Indices of Black-White Segregation, 2000

  • Detroit 85

  • New York 82

  • Milwaukee 82

  • Chicago 81

  • Newark 80

  • Cleveland 77

  • Miami 74

  • Indianapolis 71

  • Kansas City 69

  • Los Angeles 66

  • Atlanta 65

  • South Africa under apartheid: 92.5


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Neighborhood Segregation Subsystem

Housing Market Discrimination

Mortgage-Market Discrimination

Neighborhood Segregation

Location of Public Housing

Zoning Decisions

Disparate Economic Resources

Opposition to Black Neighbors


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Housing Market Discrimination

  • 13% of black testers posing as house buyers were offered assistance in mortgage lending, compared with 24% of white testers.

  • Hispanics who asked about unadvertised units were 8 percentage points more likely to be steered toward relatively low-income neighborhoods than their Anglo counterparts

  • Blacks were quoted higher rents than whites for the same unit.

The Economist, June 1998


Effects of neighborhood segregation l.jpg
Effects of Neighborhood Segregation

School Segregation

Achievement test scores

Exposure to crime; arrest

Transportation and other public services

Neighborhood Segregation

Job segregation

Racial stigma

Property values; community power


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Disparities in

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


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Trends in School Segregation: Percentage of Students of Color in Predominantly-Minority Elementary and Secondary Schools


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AP Classes by Race

In predominantly-white suburban schools, advanced placement courses are universal.

In poor and minority neighborhoods, only 43 percent of high schools offer AP classes


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Number of Students per 1000 Who Took AP Exams, by Race, 1984-1997

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997

National Center for Educational Statistics 2000


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Unequal Treatment in the Classroom 1984-1997

In an experiment in which teachers gave performance feedback to students whom they could not see, the teachers gave less positive feedback after correct responses, briefer feedback for mistakes, and less coaching to students whom they believed to be black than they did for student whom they thought were white.

R. Ferguson 1998:294.


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Disparities in 1984-1997

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


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The Likelihood of Encountering Discrimination When You’re Outnumbered

If just one white in seven treats African Americans unfairly because of their race, there would be one actively discriminating white for every black person in America.

Fischer et al. 1996:183.


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Stereotype OutnumberedThreat

According to an experiment on the performance of white and black varsity athletes, when the experimenters told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic ability, the black athletes outscored the whites; when they told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic intelligence, the white athletes outscored the blacks.

Stone et al. 1999


College attendance by race 1990s l.jpg
College Attendance by Race (1990s) Outnumbered

White 45 36 36

Black 36 43 30

Hispanic 35 57 22

% college students @ community colleges

% students

@ colleges with mean SATs > 1000

% HS grads in college


Percentage of students earning bas at schools with at least half minority students 1993 l.jpg
Percentage of Students Earning BAs Outnumberedat Schools with at Least Half Minority Students (1993)

Race Percentage

Hispanic

34

32

Black

Asian

7

Jacobs 1996


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Disparities in Outnumbered

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


Family economics and college admission l.jpg
Family Economics and College Admission Outnumbered

Academic CriteriaWhat Money Can Buy

Class rank, GPA Tutoring

Standardized test scores Prep class up to $1K

$60 per shot

Personal essay Professional editor

Recommendations Professional editor

Family social ties


Family economics and college admission20 l.jpg
Family Economics and College Admission Outnumbered

Nonacademic CriteriaWhat Money Can Buy

Musical, athletic “talent” Private lessons, equipment

“Character” (volunteers) No part-time job

Extracurricular activities No part-time job

Interesting experiences Unpaid internships Travel abroad

Campus interview Travel expenses

In-state tuition $3000-$10,000

Donations to institution 6-figure donations

Legacy status Family members alumni


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Disparities in Outnumbered

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


Hiring discrimination l.jpg
Hiring Discrimination Outnumbered

  • In more than 2,000 audits, employers discriminated against minorities between 20 and 25 percent of the time

  • Employers favored whites in invitations to interview, job offers, compensation, job assignments, and information about unadvertised opportunities

Fix, Galster, & Struyk; Kenney & Wissoker, 1994.


Hiring discrimination23 l.jpg
Hiring Discrimination Outnumbered

Faxed applications from “applicants” with names like Kristin, Meredith, Brad and Jay to employers that had advertised for entry-level jobs were 50 percent more likely to be called by employers than applications signed by people with names like Lakisha, Tamika, Rasheed, and Darnell.

Bertrand and Mullainathan 2002


Unemployment by race and sex 2002 l.jpg
Unemployment by Race and Sex, 2002 Outnumbered

Adult Adult Teens Men Women

White 14.1 5.0 4.2 Black 28.2 10.0 8.9

Current Population Survey, 2003


Labor force participation by sex and race in percent l.jpg
Labor Force Participation by OutnumberedSex and Race (in percent)

Teens Men Women

White 47 60 77

Black 29 64 72

Current Population Survey, 2003


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Occupational Segregation Outnumbered

Indices of Occupational Segregation with Same-Sex European-Ancestry Whites

  • African Americans 30-35

  • Mexican Americans 32-40

  • Southeast Asians 44-45


2002 median earnings by race and sex for full time year round workers l.jpg
2002 Median Earnings by Race and Sex for Full-Time Year-Round Workers

Non-Hispanic white 41,400 30,890

African American 32,257 27,351

Hispanic 26,493 22,192

Men Women

U.S. Bureau of the Census 2003



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Disparities in Federal and State Prisons and Jails

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


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Hiring Discrimination Federal and State Prisons and Jails

Milwaukee employers preferred white applicants to matched black applicants, and applicants without prison records to applicants with records. But they preferred white applicants with a prison record to matched black applicants who had no prison record.

Pager, American Journal of Sociology 2003


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Disparities in Federal and State Prisons and Jails

Test Performance

Disparities in Access to Higher Education

School Segregation

Disparities in

Criminal Justice

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Labor Market Disparities

Disparities in Economic Status


Disparities in wealth l.jpg
Disparities in Wealth Federal and State Prisons and Jails

Middle-class blacks . . . earn seventy cents for every dollar earned by middle-class whites, but they possess only fifteen cents for every dollar of wealth held by middle-class whites.

Black Wealth/White Wealth , Melvin Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro


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Black-White School Segregation in the South: Percentage of Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998

40

30

20

10

0

1954 1960 1964 1967 1968 1970 1972 1976 1980 1986 1988 1991 1994 1996 1999 2002

Source: Orfield, 2003.


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EEOC CHARGE HANDLING PROCESS Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998

77,444 cases filed

EEOC: no cause

8,248

EEOC dropped68,000charges

8248 cases resolved through

conciliation

431 filed in court

ca. 338 dismissed

< 100 go to trial

2040

resolved for complainant

< 100 settled for complainant

< 50 win at trial


Remedies for discrimination subsystems l.jpg
Remedies for Discrimination Subsystems Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998

Higher Education

School Segregation

Affirmative action

Brown v.

Bd. of Educ.

Discrimination laws, affirmative action

CETA, JTPA

Busing

Criminal Justice

FairHousing Acts

Automatic Sentencing

Labor Markets

Neighborhood Segregation

Racial Stigma

Minimum wage laws, pay discrimination

Public assistance

Section 8 Housing

Economic Standing and Social Status


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