Rights-Based Approach and Equity Re-Focus of UNICEF

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Outline. The Link between Rights-Based Approach (RBA) and Equity: Concepts and DefinitionsRBA, Equity and UNICEF Re-FocusEquity begins with childrenThe evidence: Narrowing the GapEquity focused programmingGalvanizing strategic Management for EquityTracking progress on the equity agenda3. Some Concluding Reflections.

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Rights-Based Approach and Equity Re-Focus of UNICEF

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1. Rights-Based Approach and Equity Re-Focus of UNICEF By Dr. Festo P. Kavishe, Deputy Regional Director UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok Presented at the UNICEF Meeting on Socio Economic Policies for Child Rights with Equity, Royal Orchid Sheraton & Towers, Bangkok, Thailand, 13 June 2011

2. Outline The Link between Rights-Based Approach (RBA) and Equity: Concepts and Definitions RBA, Equity and UNICEF Re-Focus Equity begins with children The evidence: Narrowing the Gap Equity focused programming Galvanizing strategic Management for Equity Tracking progress on the equity agenda 3. Some Concluding Reflections

3. Rights-Based Approach and Equity: Concepts, Definitions Rights-Based approach Defn: Application of human rights principles in child survival, growth, development and participation. Scope: All children have the right to survive, develop and reach full potential regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, geographical location or other status. Concept of progressive realization of rights. Violations of child rights arise when the basic child rights are not realized as per CRC four principles: non-discrimination; best interest of the child; right to survive, grow and develop; and the right to participate/be heard; Guiding principles: Accountability, Universality, indivisibility, and participation. Justice overriding theme Equity-based approach Defn: Application of an equity-focused approach in the realization of child rights Scope: All children have an opportunity to survive, develop and reach full potential without discrimination, bias or favoritism. . Focus is on the most marginalized children. Inequities arise when certain population groups are unfairly or unjustly deprived of basic resources that are available to other groups. Equity is distinct from equality. Equality requires all to have same resources, while equity requires all to have same opportunity to access same resources. Concept of equity is universal with social justice as overriding theme

4. Equity, Inequity and Equality (ref. Equity begins with children by Jan Vandermoortele, forthcoming chapter in book on Child Poverty by Policy Press 2011) Though sometimes used interchangeably, they are different concepts. Inequity highlights existence of unfair disparities; equity accepts differences that are earned fairly. Inequality does not allow for differences in outcomes whether fairly or unfairly earned. Differences in life chances that stem from factors beyond the control of a person or for which the person cannot be held responsible (e.g. being male or female) are not accepted by the principle of equality, thus the term gender equality as being the correct terminology

6. Rights and equity based refocus: Right in principle; right in practice Conceptual Frameworks Models: - Cause and effect Deduction, consequences

7. Equity Approach: Interpreting the evidence Right in Principle The Scientific and ethical basis is sound; Because scientific models are based on hypothesis, premises or assumptions, a change in them calls for new models. UNICEF’s new tested equity-refocus model for children reflects the universality precepts in the CRC and CEDAW in achieving universal coverage of basic services. Right in Practice High potential for accelerating progress towards meeting the MDGs at both national and sub-national levels. Cost-effective and has high returns on investment towards MDGs, in terms of lives saved per resource spent. Major challenge: is to scale up the practice, monitor progress and evaluate results with adequate feedback for widening the triple A processes.

8. So what does equity mean for UNICEF? Universality – the over-riding principle Freedom from discrimination, bias or favoritism Focus on the most disadvantaged children – poorest, excluded, discriminated Interrupting the perpetuating inter-generational cycles of deprivations 8 In its simplest form, equity means freedom from discrimination, bias or favouritism. There has been remarkable progress for children…but has bypassed those most in need of it. Tremendous opportunity to improve the lives of the most disadvantaged children + tremendous challenge to all development partners to re-focus their work on equity Equity is a personal point of view that you have got to develop. Equity is about the fact that we live in a world with services and opportunities. Some children have access while other do not. The second consideration is that it is possible that this overall situation can be perpetuated until a process can be brought in to interrupt the cycle of transmission of inter-generational poverty. It has nothing to do with any sector or Agency. It is about children and circumstances they find themselves in at the time of their birth. For UNICEF, equity necessitates that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop, and reach their full potential. As laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the fundamental rights of every child must be realized, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, or geographical location . This includes that all individuals have an equal opportunity to exercise their voice and participate in decisions that affect their own well-being. An equity-focus requires that UNICEF make every effort to address the multiple deprivations that children can suffer, based on the recognition that: “children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health-care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of society.” UN General Assembly (para 46 of Resolution A/RES/61/14 on the Rights of the Child) In its simplest form, equity means freedom from discrimination, bias or favouritism. There has been remarkable progress for children…but has bypassed those most in need of it. Tremendous opportunity to improve the lives of the most disadvantaged children + tremendous challenge to all development partners to re-focus their work on equity Equity is a personal point of view that you have got to develop. Equity is about the fact that we live in a world with services and opportunities. Some children have access while other do not. The second consideration is that it is possible that this overall situation can be perpetuated until a process can be brought in to interrupt the cycle of transmission of inter-generational poverty. It has nothing to do with any sector or Agency. It is about children and circumstances they find themselves in at the time of their birth. For UNICEF, equity necessitates that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop, and reach their full potential. As laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the fundamental rights of every child must be realized, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, or geographical location . This includes that all individuals have an equal opportunity to exercise their voice and participate in decisions that affect their own well-being. An equity-focus requires that UNICEF make every effort to address the multiple deprivations that children can suffer, based on the recognition that: “children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health-care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of society.” UN General Assembly (para 46 of Resolution A/RES/61/14 on the Rights of the Child)

9. What are these children facing? Different manifestations of deprivation: High levels of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition, illiteracy, exploitation etc WHY? Services are not reaching them Information is not reaching them Multiple deprivations – compounding one another e.g nutrition/education They are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse … They do not have a voice Limited opportunities …… And so on … 9 In its simplest form, equity means freedom from discrimination, bias or favouritism. There has been remarkable progress for children…but has bypassed those most in need of it. Tremendous opportunity to improve the lives of the most disadvantaged children + tremendous challenge to all development partners to re-focus their work on equity Equity is a personal point of view that you have got to develop. Equity is about the fact that we live in a world with services and opportunities. Some children have access while other do not. The second consideration is that it is possible that this overall situation can be perpetuated until a process can be brought in to interrupt the cycle of transmission of inter-generational poverty. It has nothing to do with any sector or Agency. It is about children and circumstances they find themselves in at the time of their birth. For UNICEF, equity necessitates that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop, and reach their full potential. As laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the fundamental rights of every child must be realized, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, or geographical location . This includes that all individuals have an equal opportunity to exercise their voice and participate in decisions that affect their own well-being. An equity-focus requires that UNICEF make every effort to address the multiple deprivations that children can suffer, based on the recognition that: “children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health-care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of society.” UN General Assembly (para 46 of Resolution A/RES/61/14 on the Rights of the Child) Equity is distinct from equality. Equity requires everyone to have the opportunity to access the same resources. Equality requires everyone to have the same resources. Clearly, not all individuals or groups within society have the same capacities or resources. For instance, coastal fishing communities and inland farming communities generally have very different skills sets and economic opportunities. Whether these differences are inequities depends on the reasons for the disparities. In the case of the two communities, their different development outcomes are due to their respective locations. This in itself is not necessarily unfair. It would only make sense to describe the situation as inequitable if one community was disadvantaged due to its location or other social, economic, or political factors . If, for instance, children living in the rural community were deprived access to education or medical services on account of their ethnicity, religion, or culture, the rural community would suffer from serious inequities. That reaching the disadvantaged may, in some contexts, be more expensive, is not an excuse for their neglect. The aim of equity-focused policies is not to eliminate all differences so that everyone has the same level of income, health, and education. Rather, the goal is to eliminate the unfair and avoidable barriers that deny the rights of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable children. Let me give you a concrete example on what this means on the ground, when I was in country XXX… In its simplest form, equity means freedom from discrimination, bias or favouritism. There has been remarkable progress for children…but has bypassed those most in need of it. Tremendous opportunity to improve the lives of the most disadvantaged children + tremendous challenge to all development partners to re-focus their work on equity Equity is a personal point of view that you have got to develop. Equity is about the fact that we live in a world with services and opportunities. Some children have access while other do not. The second consideration is that it is possible that this overall situation can be perpetuated until a process can be brought in to interrupt the cycle of transmission of inter-generational poverty. It has nothing to do with any sector or Agency. It is about children and circumstances they find themselves in at the time of their birth. For UNICEF, equity necessitates that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop, and reach their full potential. As laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the fundamental rights of every child must be realized, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, or geographical location . This includes that all individuals have an equal opportunity to exercise their voice and participate in decisions that affect their own well-being. An equity-focus requires that UNICEF make every effort to address the multiple deprivations that children can suffer, based on the recognition that: “children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health-care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of society.” UN General Assembly (para 46 of Resolution A/RES/61/14 on the Rights of the Child) Equity is distinct from equality. Equity requires everyone to have the opportunity to access the same resources. Equality requires everyone to have the same resources. Clearly, not all individuals or groups within society have the same capacities or resources. For instance, coastal fishing communities and inland farming communities generally have very different skills sets and economic opportunities. Whether these differences are inequities depends on the reasons for the disparities. In the case of the two communities, their different development outcomes are due to their respective locations. This in itself is not necessarily unfair. It would only make sense to describe the situation as inequitable if one community was disadvantaged due to its location or other social, economic, or political factors . If, for instance, children living in the rural community were deprived access to education or medical services on account of their ethnicity, religion, or culture, the rural community would suffer from serious inequities. That reaching the disadvantaged may, in some contexts, be more expensive, is not an excuse for their neglect. The aim of equity-focused policies is not to eliminate all differences so that everyone has the same level of income, health, and education. Rather, the goal is to eliminate the unfair and avoidable barriers that deny the rights of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable children. Let me give you a concrete example on what this means on the ground, when I was in country XXX…

10. The evidence: Narrowing the Gap An equity-focused approach improves returns on investment, averting many more child and maternal deaths and episodes of stunting than the current path (NB: <5MR, MMR, stunting are measures of national development). Using an equity focused approach, a US $1 million investment in reducing under-five deaths in a low-income, high-mortality country would avert an estimated 60% more deaths than the current approach (more cost-effective than current path). Because national burdens of disease, ill health and malnutrition are concentrated in the most excluded and deprived child populations, providing these children with essential services can accelerate progress towards the health related MDGs and reduce disparities within nations (enhances social cohesion as an externality).

11. Evidence from the East Asia and Pacific Region The UNICEF East Asia and Pacific region comprises of 14 COs and 27 countries. Total staff in the region is 1,207 as of October 2010 of whom 670 (56%) are females and 537 (44%) are males. The UNICEF East Asia and Pacific region comprises of 14 COs and 27 countries. Total staff in the region is 1,207 as of October 2010 of whom 670 (56%) are females and 537 (44%) are males.

12. Economic disparities are growing in virtually every country in the region, with Thailand the only country showing improvements in bridging the gap. Disparities exist between urban and rural, minority and majority groups. They also exist between countries. EAP contains advanced economies (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore), and ten of the world’s Least Developed Countries (Cambodia, Kirabati, Laos, Myanmar, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu). Disparities encourage migration and its dark side – trafficking. Trafficking is just one of many child protection concerns that are increasingly a focus of UNICEF’s work. Economic disparities are growing in virtually every country in the region, with Thailand the only country showing improvements in bridging the gap. Disparities exist between urban and rural, minority and majority groups. They also exist between countries. EAP contains advanced economies (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore), and ten of the world’s Least Developed Countries (Cambodia, Kirabati, Laos, Myanmar, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu). Disparities encourage migration and its dark side – trafficking. Trafficking is just one of many child protection concerns that are increasingly a focus of UNICEF’s work.

13. ….income inequalities have increased significantly

14. A regional analysis of MDGs progress shows 4 main drivers of inequity in the Asia Pacific Region Income Poverty has the strongest association with low achievement of all MDGs, underscoring the importance of poverty as the main underlying driver of inequity. Geographical location is second: in some countries, the association between the poorest region/province (and often rural/urban) and the richest has similar or greater effect on MDG achievement than income (e.g in Cambodia, Mongolia, Nepal and Philippines); Gender differences in achievement of MDGs is comparatively low in young ages (e.g. birth registration& immunization is similar in boys and girls), but increase considerably after childhood with large differences in men and women in the labour force and parliamentary participation. Other drivers: In some countries there are disparities related ethnicity, religion, HIV/AIDS status, disabilities (physical & mental) and in some places caste.

16. Geography as second major driver: (1) most of the poor live in rural and hard to reach areas.

17. Geography as second major driver: (2) most of the wealth is concentrated in urban areas

18. Gender (MDG3) as third driver: Gender disparities apparent when children start joining labour market and in political representation

19. Lao PDR: Poorest – Richest: 43.9 - 18.2 = 25.6 % more kids likely to be moderately or severely underweight if they are from the poorest 20%, compared to richest 20% Worst – Best Province: 49.5 – 32.9 = 16.6% more kids in the worst performing provinces are underweight compared to kids from the best provinces Viet Nam (MICS 2006): Worst – Best Province: 28.8 – 10.8 = 18% As a proportion, almost 3X likely to be underweight you are from the worst performing province (probably in the north) Lao PDR: Poorest – Richest: 43.9 - 18.2 = 25.6 % more kids likely to be moderately or severely underweight if they are from the poorest 20%, compared to richest 20% Worst – Best Province: 49.5 – 32.9 = 16.6% more kids in the worst performing provinces are underweight compared to kids from the best provinces Viet Nam (MICS 2006): Worst – Best Province: 28.8 – 10.8 = 18% As a proportion, almost 3X likely to be underweight you are from the worst performing province (probably in the north)

20. MDGs 2 and 3: Disparities in Primary Education: Net Attendance Rate (%)

21. Disparities in secondary education – in order of importance:- 1. by Wealth (purple) 2. by Province (green) 3. Urban/rural (red) 4. Gender (blue)

22. Cambodia (DHS 2006): Worst province: 165 (3X more likely) Best Province: 52 Diff: 113/1000 children born do not reach their 5th birthday Richest – Poorest: 127 - 43 = 84/1000 live births Philippines (DHS 2008): - Worst – Best province: 94 - 24 = 70/1000 live births Poorest - Richest: 59 - 17= 42/1000 live births Cambodia (DHS 2006): Worst province: 165 (3X more likely) Best Province: 52 Diff: 113/1000 children born do not reach their 5th birthday Richest – Poorest: 127 - 43 = 84/1000 live births Philippines (DHS 2008): - Worst – Best province: 94 - 24 = 70/1000 live births Poorest - Richest: 59 - 17= 42/1000 live births

23. Philippines (DHS 2008): Richest – Poorest: 94.4 – 25.7 = 68.7% women from the richest HHs will have mothers delivering their babies in the presence of skilled personnel Best Province – Worst Province: 86.8 – 19.2 = 67.6 - Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period. Increasing attended births helps decrease the maternal mortality rate. Twenty-one of 23 countries in Europe and Central Asia and 19 of 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved the target to lower the nonattendance rate to 10 percent by 2015, but most South Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries are not on track. Philippines (DHS 2008): Richest – Poorest: 94.4 – 25.7 = 68.7% women from the richest HHs will have mothers delivering their babies in the presence of skilled personnel Best Province – Worst Province: 86.8 – 19.2 = 67.6 - Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period. Increasing attended births helps decrease the maternal mortality rate. Twenty-one of 23 countries in Europe and Central Asia and 19 of 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved the target to lower the nonattendance rate to 10 percent by 2015, but most South Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries are not on track.

25. MDG 7: Percentage of population using sanitary means of excreta disposal Mongolia (MICS 2005): Richest – Poorest: 99.8 – 28.5 = 71.3% of the richest HHs will have access to improved sanitation compared to those from the poorest HHs Best – Worst Province: 96.2 – 56.8 = 39.4% Urban – Rural: 95.4 – 53.1 = 42.3% Viet Nam: Richest – Poorest: 98.2 – 15.4 = 82.8% Best – Worst Prov: 87.3 – 32.3 = 55%MDG 7: Percentage of population using sanitary means of excreta disposal Mongolia (MICS 2005): Richest – Poorest: 99.8 – 28.5 = 71.3% of the richest HHs will have access to improved sanitation compared to those from the poorest HHs Best – Worst Province: 96.2 – 56.8 = 39.4% Urban – Rural: 95.4 – 53.1 = 42.3% Viet Nam: Richest – Poorest: 98.2 – 15.4 = 82.8% Best – Worst Prov: 87.3 – 32.3 = 55%

26. What is RBA and Equity Programming? It is the systematic application of human rights and equity focused approaches to achieve results for children:- To influence decisions and mobilize resources for advancement of child rights To improve public policy (and Corporate social responsibility) for results for children To promote positive social values and practices that lead to the realization of child rights and reduction of disparities. To define accountability and track changes and results and use lessons derived for improving results for children. Results for children are broadly defined to include the MTSP areas (YCSD, Education & Gender Equity, HIV and AIDS, Child Protection and Social & Economic Policy) and the Core Commitments for children (CCC) in humanitarian situations…. in ways that are eco-friendly

27. Rights and equity-based approaches have similar overarching strategies They build on a wide range of strategic partnerships and alliances. The approaches are integrated and inter-sectoral Have participation and empowerment of rights holders: children, parents and families living in poverty as explicit objectives. The voices of children, women and the poor must be heard and respected in all phases of programming (poor as active contributors to solution) Aims for sustained outcomes and clear results. Sustainability depends on policies, priorities, practices and political commitment

28. An equity-focussed strategy needs to address: societal factors i.e. social norms, behaviours, practices that are impeding access to services or fuelling discrimination and deprivations services and systems i.e. services that are not reaching those who are most in need ? This requires analyzing and removing the barriers to access and underlying systems constraints political and ideological issues i.e. the governance, accountability, policy, legislative etc issues that are not favouring equal opportunities for the disadvantaged children and communities. 28

29. Equity-based Programming begins with children In aggregate terms, many countries have their MDGs on track and their economies are doing well “except for the people and especially the children in it”. Some call it the tyranny of the averages; others the fallacy of the mean! This “orthodox economic growth mediated development or as some people call it “predatory growth” produces inequalities with devastating effects on children resulting in intergenerational vicious cycles of poverty! UNICEF believes that the vicious cycle can be turned into a virtuous one by ensuring that policies and strategies that result in economic growth also addresses the multiple deprivations in children.. An “equity-mediated growth” as a key instrument for national development and for enhancing social cohesion.

30. RBA Vs Equity focused programming Rights-based Programming Goal is to ensure the rights of all children are realized in terms of fulfilment, protection, facilitation and respect in both outcome and process. Strategy: seeks to understand the causes (immediate, underlying and basic) of the situation at all levels of society and uses the most efficient and effective mix of: Capacity Development; Service Delivery; Advocacy/Mobilization ……to address with available resources factors affecting rights outcomes at the different levels Methodology: Situation assessment and analysis of cause, capacity gaps, role & obligations, resource (human, financial, organizational), communication & advocacy Equity-based Programming Goal is to eliminate unfair and avoidable circumstances that deprive certain groups (children) of their rights. Strategy: seeks to understand and address root /basic causes of inequity to ensure equal opportunity to access resources and services for survival, growth and development (e.g. education, health, WASH, protection). Methodology: similar to the RBA

31. RBA and Equity focused programming are contextual Programming from an equity perspective is contextual: political, social, economic and cultural Causative factors for inequity are complex and include:-Income disparities, Geographical isolation, attribute and identity based risks (e.g. gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, orphanhood), culture and social “norms”, disasters, weak governance etc. For children deprivations are often multiple and multidimensional, highest risk being income, geographical location (rural/urban, IDPs, migrants, refugees), identity and attributes risks (gender, ethnicity, disability, religion etc).

32. RBA & Equity programming principles Evidence-based and/or evidence informed: Situation analysis encompasses all rights: social, economic, cultural, political; data is disaggregated to expose disparities and a determination is made of whether policies, laws, practices and programmes are consistent with human rights, reduction of disparities and provide for the “progressive realization” of rights An explicit definition and understanding by partners of their obligations Adaptive: considers dynamism of the environment so approach is context specific Results-Based: needs both good processes and good outcomes supported by strong M&E

33. What does equity refocus mean for UNICEF? It means UNICEF needs to intensify efforts in:- Situation Analysis and Child Poverty and Disparities Studies; Engagement in national policy formulation and implementation; Advocacy for equitable budgetary allocations and adequate social expenditure for MDGs; Integration of policy work across sectoral programmes; Support social protection systems; Strengthening participation and empowerment among most deprived children and families from the community to the national level It changes HOW Unicef does its work and not necessary “what” Unicef does. Note that an equity focus is already a key feature of UNICEF’s HRBAP and Mission Statement: ‘In everything we do, the most disadvantaged children and the countries in greatest need have priority”.

35. Galvanizing strategic Management for Equity Executive Director’s Leadership in the development of the evidence, GMT, advocating with strategic global partners and RO and CO leadership through, RMTs and CMTs… and the Equity Funds, Advocating the evidence through publications (e.g. Narrowing the Gap, Progress for Children, Q&A, the equity package etc) and strategic Meetings and dialogue with strategic partners; The RO-HQ Joint Work-planning Meeting of 15-17 March 2011 organized by PD, whose key outcomes included: inventory of capacity requirements and gaps within and across regions; improved understanding of equity concepts and processes and agreements on collaboration between RO & HQ; Challenge now is to ensure incorporation into “normal programming process”.

36. Tracking progress on the equity agenda Tracking rights and equity pose measurement challenges and results may be longer in coming. The universality, interdependence and indivisibility of rights requires not only measurement of rights fulfilled but of also of exclusion making it critical to have a good analytical approach to monitoring and interpreting change. Participation rights, requires a participatory process of monitoring and evaluation that includes rights holders (children) and duty-bearers (families, communities, civil society and the state) Already a number of developments have taken place: The Equity Tracker.. And now the equity traffic lights Critically the development of Strategic Results Areas (SRAs) around which global M&E of progress can be done.

37. UNICEF’s Global Strategic Results Areas (SRAs) SRA 1: Global Campaigns: eradication of polio by 2013; elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2015; 95% reduction in measles mortality by 2015 on 1990 baseline; Virtual elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV SRA 2: Combating main killers of children:- Pneumonia; Diarrhea Malaria; Neonatal mortality

38. UNICEF’s Global Strategic Results Areas (SRAs): continued SRA 3: Reducing prevalence of stunting amongst most deprived children SRA 4: Increasing birth registration SRA 5: Increasing access to quality pre-school education programmes and entry into primary school at prescribed age, among most disadvantaged children; SRA 6: Improving availability of trained teachers and appropriate learning materials for marginalized excluded children SRA 7: Reducing Violence and Harmful Practices.

39. UNICEF’s Global Strategic Results Areas (SRAs) The 7 SRAs were selected for management of results for regular monitoring of progress and results to allow the organization to know how the refocus on equity is translating into results for the most disadvantaged children; The SRAs are global markers of the equity strategy; selected on the basis of RO/NYHQ consultation for monitoring UNICEF’s refocus on reducing disparities and narrow the gaps in outcomes for poor, marginalized and vulnerable children. They do not denote priorities nor results of the full work of UNICEF work in support of the equity refocus.

40. Monitoring Progress Equity Focused Programming and SRA monitoring model

41. We want both a good process and good impact!

42. Some Concluding Reflections on the equity approach It is critical that the Equity approach is applied within UNICEF’s programming process as part of the HRBAP and not as a parallel vertical approach; While UNICEF’s “upstream” shift is important to adjust national policies, strategies, porgrammes, budgets and legal frameworks towards the equity approach, it is critical that this is balanced with sub-national community-centred efforts where most disparities are found and where scaled up interventions would have highest impact.. Given UNICEF’s unique role in the equity agenda i.e. developing evidence as well as leading programmatic application.. The evolving nature of the discourse requires that staff must continue to engage and contribute and not only wait for guidelines! (UNICEF has successfully taken similar double role in HRBAP). The development of Strategic Result Areas (SRA) provides an important strategy for demonstrating evidence for effect/impact for feedback and course correction; UNICEF’s Equity refocus, taken to scale has great potential for accelerating progress towards achievement of MDGs and critically help define the global agenda beyond 2015; Sustainable human development must be equitable, so “fairness”, an essential part of human well-being, must be considered a right (social justice); thus the equity approach must be grounded in human rights for it to be sustained.

43. Thank You

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