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Acids Lesson 10 pH Calculations PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Acids Lesson 10 pH Calculations. pHEquations You must know the following equations, which are all based on the ionization of water at 25 0 C ! H 2 O ⇄ H + +OH - Kw =[H + ][ OH - ]= 1.00 x 10 -14 pH =-Log[H + ] pOH =-Log[OH - ] [H + ] =10 -pH [OH - ] =10 -pOH

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Acids Lesson 10 pH Calculations

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Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

Acids

Lesson 10

pH Calculations


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHEquations

You must know the following equations, which are all based on the ionization of water at 250 C!

H2O⇄H++OH-

Kw=[H+][ OH-]=1.00 x 10-14

pH=-Log[H+]pOH=-Log[OH-]

[H+]=10-pH[OH-]=10-pOH

pH+pOH=pKw=14.000


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M

Calculation


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M

CalculationThe number of sig figs are 2 (green)


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M

CalculationpH = -Log[H+]

pH = -Log[2.5 x 10-4]

pH = 3.60The digit before the decimal does not count as a sig fig. Both digits after the decimal count for 2 sig figs.


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M3.60

CalculationpH = -Log[H+]

pH = -Log[2.5 x 10-4]

pH = 3.60keep all digits on the calculator- do not round!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M3.60

CalculationpH + pOH = 14.00

3.60 + pOH = 14.00

pOH = 10.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M3.6010.40

Calculation[OH-]=10-pOH

[OH-]=10-10.40

[OH-]=4.0 x 10-11 M


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

CalculationNote that all of the entries in the last line have two sig figs!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

9.435

CalculationpH + pOH = 14.000

9.435 + pOH = 14.000

pOH = 4.565


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

9.4354.565

Calculation[OH-]=10-pOH

[OH-]=10-4.565

[OH-]=2.72 x 10-5 M


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

Calculation[H+][OH-]=1.00 x 10-14

[H+][2.72 x 10-5 ]=1.00 x 10-14

[H+]=3.67 x 10-10 M


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

CalculationNote that all of the entries in the last linehave three sig figs!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

2.6 x 10-4 M

CalculationpOH = -Log[OH-]

pOH = -Log[2.6 x 10-4]

pOH = 3.59


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

2.6 x 10-4 M3.59

CalculationpH + pOH = 14.000

pH +3.59 = 14.000

pOH = 10.41


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

Calculation[H+]=10-pH

[H+]=10-10.41

[H+]=3.8 x 10-11 M


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

CalculationNote that all of the entries in the last line have two sig figs!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

8.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

4.0 x 10-9 M8.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

4.0 x 10-9 M8.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

2.5 x 10-6 M4.0 x 10-9 M8.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

2.5 x 10-6 M4.0 x 10-9 M5.608.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59

2.5 x 10-6 M4.0 x 10-9 M5.608.40

CalculationNote that all of the entries in the last line have two sig figs!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

pHCalculations

[H+][OH-]pHpOH

2.5 x 10-4 M4.0 x 10-11 M3.6010.40 acid

3.67 x 10-10 M2.72 x 10-5 M9.4354.565basic

3.8 x 10-11 M2.6 x 10-4 M10.413.59basic

2.5 x 10-6 M4.0 x 10-9 M5.608.40acid

If the pH is lower than 7, the solution is acidic!

If the pH is greater than 7, the solution is basic!


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

1.Calculate the pH of 0.40 M HI.

HIH++I-

0.40 M0.40 M0.40 M

pH = -Log[H+]

pH = -Log[0.40]

pH = 0.40


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

2.Calculate the pH of 0.030 M Ba(OH)2.

Ba(OH)2Ba2++2OH-

0.030 M0.030 M0.060 M

pOH = -Log[OH-]

pOH = -Log[0.060]

pOH = 1.22

pH + pOH = 14.000

pH +1.22 = 14.000

pH = 12.78


Acids lesson 10 ph calculations

3.Calculate the pH of 100.0 mL of 1.0 M HCl after 300.0 mL of water is added to it.

HClH++Cl-

1001.0M

4000.25M0.25M

pH=0.60


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