Identifying snake species involved in bites
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IDENTIFYING SNAKE SPECIES INVOLVED IN BITES. New Technology, New Options Disclaimer: I am not involved with any of the companies that make products covered in this presentation. ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunoassay). Inexpensive (relative! c. $275 for 3 reactions) relatively easy to perform

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IDENTIFYING SNAKE SPECIES INVOLVED IN BITES

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Identifying snake species involved in bites

IDENTIFYING SNAKE SPECIES INVOLVED IN BITES

New Technology, New Options

Disclaimer: I am not involved with any of the companies that make products covered in this presentation


Identifying snake species involved in bites

ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunoassay)

  • Inexpensive (relative! c. $275 for 3 reactions)

  • relatively easy to perform

  • fast (< 30 mins)

  • uses stable reagents

  • sensitivity of < 1 ng/ml


Identifying snake species involved in bites

ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunoassay)

  • False positives through low specificity/cross reactivity ESPECIALLY in regions with diverse snake faunas

  • False negatives through upper limit of detectability (c. 1 mg/ml in some spp)

  • first application to snakebite c. 35 years ago

  • Snake venom detection kit (SVDK) issued by CSL, Australia since 1988 is the still the only commercial diagnostic kit

  • Alternative biosensor approach advocated by Selvanayagam & Gopalakrishnakone in Toxicon in 1999.


Identifying snake species involved in bites

LABEL-FREE Kinetic profiling of immunotherapeutics

Vaccine efficacy testing

Eg. BLItzTM system

Drop. Read. Done. Genius!

http://www.blitzmenow.com


Identifying snake species involved in bites

1. Pipette a 4 µL drop of sample into the sample holder.

2. Install a biosensor.

  3. Select your assay and click GO. Results appear immediately!


Identifying snake species involved in bites

Disposable biosensor (can be re-used): c. $4.50/assay

Non-denaturing, minimises non-specific binding

Exceptional specificity even for crude media

Bio-layer interferometry (BLI)

Real-time data


Identifying snake species involved in bites

DNA diagnostics

Is this what it takes?


Identifying snake species involved in bites

1. Sample collection, storage and extraction

Whatman™ FTA cards:

Collect, archive, transport, and purify nucleic acids at room temperature

minimal handling, streamlined, efficient workflow for sample collection and analysis.

$3-5/sample

(30 mins)


Identifying snake species involved in bites

2. Biomarker amplification

Ready-to-go PCR tubes: just add sample (c. $1.50/sample)

Pre-dispensed, room temp stable, reliable and reproducible

Custom formats including primers

Also available in RT-PCR format for single-step amplification from RNA

Still needs a conventional PCR machine (thermal cycler): c. $1700

PCR CYCLER: LavaAmp (prototype)

20-25 reactions max

Powered by 4 x AA batteries or USB cable

$300-$500, aiming for $100

Some development problems delaying it?

lava-amp.com


Identifying snake species involved in bites

3. Vizualisation: FlashGel® System (c. $430, plus c. $10/gel running costs)

5 minute separation and recovery

TOTAL COST PER SAMPLE: $15-17

Equipment: c.£2000 (and can be used for other diagnostics as well

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2010.06.001


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