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Benchmarking of Biodiesel Fuel Standards in East Asia. Shinichi Goto, Ph.D E-mail:[email protected] Research Center for New Fuels and Vehicle Technology (NFV), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Namiki 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564, JAPAN.

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Benchmarking of biodiesel fuel standards in east asia

Benchmarking of Biodiesel Fuel Standards in East Asia

Shinichi Goto, Ph.D

E-mail:[email protected]

Research Center for New Fuels and Vehicle Technology (NFV),

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

Namiki 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564, JAPAN

DME Vehicle

BDF Mini Bus

Collab. Res. Center

Engine Test Facilities in AIST

Fuel Spray Test Cell

Vehicle Test Circuit

Engine Test Cell

Fuel and Exhaust Gas Test Equip.

Introduction of eria energy project
Introduction of ERIAEnergy Project

East Asia Summit Project:


=>ERIA: Economic Research Institute

for ASEAN and East Asia

  • Working groups:

  • Analysis of Energy Saving Potential in East Asia

    (IEE: Institute of Energy Economics, Japan)

  • Sustainable Biomass Utilization Vision in East Asia (AIST)

  • Standardization of Biodiesel Fuel for Vehicle in East Asia (AIST)

Presentation Outline

  • Policy Relevance

  • Background

  • Objectives

  • Procedure

  • Members

  • Schedule

  • Standardization activity

Policy relevance
Policy Relevance

  • The importance of biofuels has been recognized in the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security on 15 January2007, in which the standardization was encouraged for practical use.

  • In order to contribute to the promotion of biofuels in East Asian countries, Japan announced “Fueling Asia-Cooperation: Initiative for Clean Energy and Sustainable Growth”, which included the promotion of biomass energy. It was welcomed by all participating countries.

  • Energy Cooperation Task Force (ECTF) proposed launching a study on BDF standards to discuss the concrete measures.

  • The 1st EAS Energy Misters’ meeting(EMM1) was held in Singapore on 23 August 2007. The importance of BDF standards was mentioned in the joint statement.

2nd East Asia Summit

Source : The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan

Background 1
Background (1)

  • The Kyoto Protocol emphasized the concept of ‘carbon neutral’ - that vehicle emissions (CO2) are offset by using biofuels produced from plant materials absorbing CO2. The use of biofuels contributes to the prevention of global warming.

  • Asian countries are actively promotingthe introduction of biofuels due to soaring oil prices and increased energy consumption. The utilization of biofuels is also important from the viewpoint of energy security and alternative fuels.





Gb/a : Giga barrels of oil equivalent per annum



Background 2
Background (2)

  • The low-quality biodiesel fuel (BDF) raises serious concerns regarding the effect on engine performance caused by fuel impurities and the oxidation.

  • It is anticipated that BDF standards will be established in each country to promote more distribution in the region.

Mechanical defects caused by using BDF


(source : JAMA)


(source: JAMA)

Fuel tank

(source: Fuel Policy Subcommittee)


  • Develop a common agreement for BDF standardization

  • Support the formulation of BDF standards in line with the conditions in each country

  • Facilitate the distribution of good-quality BDF and stabilize the economic infrastructure

Introduction of BDF

‘No. 5 Eco Fuel Use Promotion Meeting’, Document 2-2, Ministry of the Environment


  • Share the same recognition concerning the importance of ensuring BDF quality and the basic measurements for BDF standardization

  • Study the characteristics of BDF and current situation in each country, and gather the necessary information in order to formulate BDF standards

  • Focus on Japanese standards (BDF5%) as a typical example

  • Japan Automobile Manufactures Association and Petroleum Association of Japan agree to cooperate on this activity

  • Working Group

  • To agree common FAME standards

  • Research and Survey

  • FAME Database

Members (1) Host Country


Dr. Shinichi Goto, WG Leader

Director, Research Center for New Fuels and Vehicle Technology (NFV),

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

Mr. Yasunori Takei, Representative of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)

Toyota Motor Corporation

Dr. Takashi Hoshino, Representative of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)

Isuzu Motors Limited

Prof. Koji Yamane

University of Shiga Prefecture

Mr. Akio Imai, Representative of Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ)

Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K.

Dr. Mitsuharu Oguma

Research Center for New Fuels and Vehicle Technology (NFV),

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

Members (2) Participating Countries


Ms. Zenada Ygnacio Monsada

Oil Industry Management Bureau,

Department of Energy

・Singapore (to be confirmed)

Dr. Rong Yan,

Institute of Environmental Science and

Engineering, Nanyang Technological


・South Korea

Dr. Young Jae Lee, Leader,

Transportation Energy Research Center

Korea Institute of Energy Research


Ms. Peesamai Jenvanitpanjakul

Deputy Governor (R&D), Thailand Institute of

Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR)


Ms. Hoang Thi Tinh (to be confirmed)

Vietnam Standards and Quality Center,

Directorate for Standards and Quality



Dr. Lesley Dowling and Dr. Daniel Sheedy

Fuel and Used Oil Policy Section, Department

of Environment and Water Resources


Prof. Wugao Zhang

Shanghai Jiao Tong University


Dr. O.S. Tyagi (to be confirmed)

Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP),

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research



Dr. Tatang Hernas Soerawidjaja

Chairman, Indonesian Biodiesel Forum/

Head, Center for Research on Natural

Resource Utilization, Institut Teknologi



Mr. Harrison Lau Lik Nang, Research Officer,

Engineering and Processing Research Div.

Malaysia Palm Oil Board (MPOB)

・New Zealand

Ms. Philippa Blunden

Policy Analyst, Fuels & Crown Resources

Group, Ministry of Economic Development

*in alphabetical order








Aug. 23, EAS Energy Ministers Mtg. (Singapore)

EAS-related meetings

Nov. 21, EAS (Singapore)

Aug. 26, EAS Economic Ministers Mtg. (Philippines)








WG 3rd

Nov. 29-30


WG 1st

July 17-18


WG 2nd

Oct. 2-3







Understanding on

the importance of ensuring BDF quality

Study on current situation

in each country

Proposal for common standards


BDF standardization Report

  • Site tour of Kyoto

  • city BDF plant

・ Characteristics of BDF

  • The effect on vehicle

  • performance

  • Japanese quality

  • standards

  • The political climate

  • Represent current

    BDF Specification

・Final adjustment

Proposal for common standards

Standardization activity (1)

  • Based on EN standard (EN14214)

  • ・ Cover a whole of negative factor in FAME

  • Consideration of various materials

  • ・ Coconut FAME : Viscosity and Flashpoint

  • ・ Soybean FAME : Iodine number

  • Oxidation stability

  • ・ Critical impact on metal tanks

  •   ・ Metal tanks are popular for vehicles in Asia

  •   ・ Oxidation stability of 10 hours prevented metal tank

  • corrosion in Japanese conformity test

  • Polyunsaturated FAME・ Mainly included in fish oil・ Risk of sludge formation ・ Measurement method hasn’t developed yet

  • ・ JASO* standard: “Not Detected”

*JASO : Japan Automotive Standard Organization

Standardization activity(2)

About harmonized specification

(*) Equivalent to diesel oil

(**) Meet diesel oil specification

(***) Need data check and further discussion

Effects of Oxidation Stability

on Fuel Tank Corrosion

TEST: 2000hr TEST with 8hr (60℃)and 16hr (Normal Temp.) interval

Test Fuel: Commercial diesel fuel blended 5%FAME



Oxy. Stab

of B100: 6 Hrs

Test Fuel: Same FAME above with 400ppm of anti-oxidant (20ppm as B5)



Oxy. Stab

of B100: 10 Hrs

Source:METI FAME conformity Test


Oxidation stability [h]







Cost of antioxidant [JPY/L]

Influence of Antioxidant on PME

Antioxidant : Buthyl Hydroxy Toluene

Upgrading of Oxidation Stability

by Hydrogenation

1st Generation

FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester)




HYD-FAME (Hydrogenated FAME)

[AIST Technology]

2nd Generation

BHD (Bio Hydro-fined Diesel)


Material Oil


Reaction condition

Nippon Oil : 6MPa, 240-320 degC.

Neste Oil : 6MPa, 300-350 degC.

Properties of Bio Hydro-fined Diesel

* 115℃,16Hours oxygen blowing

Source : Nippon oil corporation (presentation at 2007 JSAE/SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting)

Issues and Further steps

  • Issues and actions for ERIA Project

    ・ Oxidation stability: Need to show the evidence of necessity “10 Hr”

    • JAMA *and AIST check the data

    • ・ Polyunsaturated FAME:

    • Validation of “Not detected”

    • JAMA and AIST examine the validation

    • Proposal for common standards

    • ・ Fix all the specification values by the end of 2007 fiscal year if possible.

    • ・ To cooperate with APEC and ISO/TC28

    • *:JAMA(Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc.)

Thank You

Diesel Oil Regulation in Japan

Law on the Quality Control (Diesel oil)

* Total concentration of Formic, Acetic and Propionic acid