Review: France before the Revolution
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Review: France before the Revolution French society consisted of three social classes the clergy, or First Estate the nobility, or Second Estate the rest of the population, or Third Estate In 1789, France faced unrest, financial crisis, and food shortages. food shortages

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Review: France before the Revolution French society consisted of three social classes

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Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • Review: France before the Revolution

    • French society consisted of three social classes

      • the clergy, or First Estate

      • the nobility, or Second Estate

      • the rest of the population, or Third Estate

    • In 1789, France faced unrest, financial crisis, and food shortages


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

food shortages

financial problems (chiefly from Louis XVI giving money to the USA to fight for their independence)

1789


Meeting of the estates general

Meeting of the Estates General

to solve the financial crisis and to stabilize his rule, King Louis XVI assembled the Estates General, which had not met since 1614, comprised of representatives from the three Estates


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • France before the Revolution

    • French society had three social classes

      • the clergy, or First Estate

      • the nobility, or Second Estate

      • the rest of the population, or Third Estate

    • In 1789, unrest, financial crisis, and food shortages

    • King Louis XVI called the Estates General to carry out reforms


The tennis court oath

The Tennis Court Oath

In June 1789 the Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly and moved from the Palace of Versailles to an indoor tennis court in town. There members swore the famous Tennis Court Oath, pledging never to disband until they had written a new constitution for France.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • France before the Revolution

    • French society consisted of three social classes

      • the clergy, or First Estate

      • the nobility, or Second Estate

      • the rest of the population, or Third Estate

    • In 1789, France faced unrest, financial crisis, and food shortages

    • King Louis XVI called the Estates General to carry out reforms

    • Third Estate defied the king and left to a tennis court

      • said they represented the people and made National Assembly

      • vowed not to disband until they made a constitution


Storming of the bastille

Storming of the Bastille

Hundreds of hungry people in Paris stormed the Bastille, a medieval fort and prison, to search for gunpowder on July 14, 1789, signaling the start of the French Revolution. As the news spread across France, peasants began to rise in spontaneous revolt against their lords.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • France before the Revolution

    • French society consisted of three social classes

      • the clergy, or First Estate

      • the nobility, or Second Estate

      • the rest of the population, or Third Estate

    • In 1789, France faced unrest, financial crisis, and food shortages

    • King Louis XVI called the Estates General to carry out reforms

    • Third Estate defied the king and left to a tennis court

      • said they represented the people and made National Assembly

      • vowed not to disband until they made a constitution

    • July 14, 1789, angry Parisians stormed the Bastille, an event that quickly became the symbol of the French Revolution


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

The Declaration called for the equality of all men. It even ended slavery in France.

The National Assembly (controlled by Third Estate) reorganized the church.

It set up a constitutional monarchy and ended the absolute monarchy.

It also ended feudal privileges.

When the Bastille fell, the rule of the Third Estate began.

The other two estates would have to “dance” to the tune of the Third Estate.

The National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man .


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • Creating a New France

    • after the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly set up a limited monarchy, wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and reorganized the Church


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

European countries attack France.

French soldiers save the Republic and become very popular in France.

The most popular soldier is the genius general, Napoleon Bonaparte.

Frenchmen volunteer to defend the gains of their revolution.

The Committees for Public Safety send over 40,000 people to their deaths.

European monarchs and nobles are horrified at the violence in France.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • IV. Creating a New France

    • after the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly set up a limited monarchy, wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and reorganized the Church

    • Monarchs from Europe spoke against the French Revolution. By 1792, France was at war with most of Europe.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

The guillotine sends over 40,000 French people to their death.

Maximilien Robespierre takes over and makes the Committees of Public Safety.

King Louis XVI and his family are beheaded.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • IV. Creating a New France

    • after the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly ended feudal privileges, issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, reorganized the Church, and set up a limited monarchy

    • Throughout Europe, rulers and nobles denounced the reforms of the French Revolution. By 1792, France was at war with most of Europe.

    • Radical Days –

      • In 1792, radicals took control of the National Assembly.

      • Created the national convention that made France a Republic

      • In 1793, they executed the king and queen.


Reign of terror

Reign of Terror

Fearing enemies inside and outside of France, Maximilien Robespierre established special revolutionary courts, responsible only to him, which tried citizens for treason against the revolution. During two years of the Reign of Terror; roughly 40,000 French men and women were executed, often by guillotine. Finally, in July 1794, Robespierre himself was taken to the guillotine by members of the National Convention.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • IV. Creating a New France

    • after the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly ended feudal privileges, issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, reorganized the Church, and set up a limited monarchy

    • Throughout Europe, rulers and nobles denounced the reforms of the French Revolution. By 1792, France was at war with most of Europe.

    • Radical Days - In 1792, radicals took control of the National Assembly. In 1793, they executed the king and queen.

    • During Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Robespierre and Committee of Public Safety sent some 40,000 French citizens to their deaths on the guillotine.


Rise of napoleon

Rise of Napoleon

Following the chaos of the Reign of Terror, Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France as dictator and emperor for 15 years (1799 - 1814). He stopped revolutionary reforms such as free speech and press, but also maintained moderate revolutionary’ reforms, such as the abolishment of feudal privileges.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • V. The Age of Napoleon Begins

    • Napoleon used his military exploits in the revolution to gain power and took the title of emperor in 1804.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

Emperor Napoleon


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • The Age of Napoleon Begins

    • Napoleon used his military exploits in the revolution to gain power and took the title of emperor in 1804.

    • As emperor, Napoleon strengthened the central government, modernized finance, instituted the Napoleonic Code.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

Napoleon’s Conquests 1799-1815


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • V. The Age of Napoleon Begins

    • Napoleon used his military exploits in the revolution to gain power and took the title of emperor in 1804.

    • As emperor, Napoleon strengthened the central government, modernized finance, instituted the Napoleonic Code.

    • From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon defeated combined forces of European powers and built a vast empire.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

Retreat from Moscow

In 1812, Napoleon miscalculated. He tried to invade Russia in the winter. The French army lost over 500,000 soldiers to the Russian winter, and this failure led to the defeat of Napoleon.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

Waterloo


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • V. The End of an Era

    • people across Europe mounted rebellions against French rule

    • after a failed invasion of Russia and major defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon was removed from power


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

European leaders met to make a peace that would ensure future stability in Europe. It also tried to ensure that the example of the French Revolution would not be followed again.


Review france before the revolution french society consisted of three social classes

  • V. The End of an Era

    • people across Europe mounted rebellions against French rule

    • after a failed invasion of Russia and major defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon was removed from power

    • In 1815, the Congress of Vienna tried to restore stability and order in Europe.

      • they redrew national boundaries

      • restored hereditary monarchies

      • created the Concert of Europe, an organization pledged to maintain the balance of power and to suppress any uprisings inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution


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