Traits characteristics of life
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Traits & Characteristics of Life. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that groups and names organism based on studies of their different characteristics. Classification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. . Classification.

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Traits & Characteristics of Life

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Traits characteristics of life

Traits & Characteristics of Life

  • Taxonomy is the branch of biology that groups and names organism based on studies of their different characteristics.

  • Classification is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities.


Classification

Classification

  • As far back as Aristotle 2000 years ago, people have attempted to organize living organisms into separate and distinct categories using visible characteristics, most notably the structure of the organism’s body.

  • However, no uniform system of classification existed until CarolusLinneaus developed a simple system based on form and structure.


Carolus linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus

  • Swedish naturalist

  • Developed a simple method of grouping organisms that is still used today.

  • Based on the form and structural similarities of organisms.


Scientific names binomial nomenclature

Scientific Names- Binomial Nomenclature

  • Two-word naming system

  • First word-Genus (plural genera) consists of a group of similar species

  • Second word-species name, specific characteristics

  • Latin b/c it’s a “dead” language

  • Should be italicized in print and underlined when handwritten.

  • 1st letter of genus name must be capitalized, species name is never capitalized, always lower case


Taxonomic rankings

Taxonomic Rankings

  • Organisms are ranked in taxa that range from having very broad characteristics to very specific ones.

  • The broader the taxa, the more general its characteristics

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • species

  • Domain

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class


Six kingdoms of organisms

Six Kingdoms of Organisms

  • Archaebacteria

  • Eubacteria

  • Protists

  • Fungi

  • Plants

  • Animals


All prokaryotes

ALL Prokaryotes

  • Organisms with cells that lack distinct membrane-bound nuclei

  • Have cell walls

  • Are microscopic

  • Unicellular

  • Either heterotrophic or autotrophic


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria

  • Prokaryotes that live in very harsh, anaerobic environments, get energy for growth from chemicals in the environment.

  • Biochemically different from other prokaryotes. Cell walls made without peptidoclycan

  • Genes have similar structure to those in eukaryotes

  • Methanogens are organisms that produce methane gas as a by-product of anaerobic cellular respiration.

  • Thermophiles are organisms that can live in water that is very hot (>220ºF) and/or very acidic (<pH 2).

  • Extreme halophiles are organisms that thrive in water ten times saltier than the ocean; and uses salt (NaCl) to produce energy.


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

  • All of the other prokaryotes that may be decomposers, parasites, a symbiont (lives within other creatures andprovides them benefits), or photosynthetic

  • Have strong cell walls made with peptidoglycan

  • Less complex genetic make-up

  • Live in most habitats, except the extreme ones of archaebacteria


Kingdom protista

Kingdom Protista

  • A eukaryote that lacks complex organ system and have a visible nucleus

  • Lives in moist environments

  • Unicellular, multicellular, and some are colonial

  • Autotrophs or heterotrophs

  • Major phyla include: myxomycota, rhizopoda, ciliophora, euglenophyta, bacillariophyta, phaeophyta, and chlorphyta


Kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi

  • Earth’s decomposers

  • Heterotrophs that do not move from place to place

  • Either a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote

  • Absorbs nutrients from dead or decaying organisms

  • Has cell walls made of chitin-a tough, flexible carbohydrate


Kingdom plantae

Kingdom Plantae

  • Multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes

  • None move from place to place

  • Cells contain chloroplasts

  • Cell walls made of cellulose

  • Organized into tissues and organ systems


Kingdom animalia

Kingdom Animalia

  • Multicellularheterotrophs

  • Nearly all are able to move from place to place

  • Do not have cell walls

  • Cells organized into tissues and organ systems


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