# Power Series - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Power Series. Dr. Dillon Calculus II Fall 1999. Recall the Taylor polynomial of degree. for a function. times differentiable at. which is. Taylor Polynomials. The Taylor series for a function. which has derivatives of all orders at a point. Definition. is given by. Compare.

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Power Series

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## Power Series

Dr. Dillon

Calculus II

Fall 1999

Recall the Taylor polynomial of degree

for a function

times differentiable at

which is

### Taylor Polynomials

The Taylor series for a function

which has derivatives of all orders at a point

is given by

### Compare

Taylor polynomial

Taylor series

### A Taylor Polynomial

is a (finite) sum

with a defined degree.

### A Taylor Series

is an infinite sum, i.e.,

a sequence of partial sums.

### Sequence of Partial Sums

Each member of the sequence of

partial sums is itself a Taylor

polynomial.

A Taylor series is a

sequence of Taylor polynomials.

Let

### Sequence of Taylor Polynomials

at

to be the sequence

### As the Taylor Series

We actually define the Taylor series for

at

### An Example

The first few Taylor polynomials for

The Taylor series:

you need derivatives up to order

### Assumptions

For a Taylor polynomial,

For a Taylor series,

you need derivatives of all orders.

at

at

at

at

### Examples

We could find Taylor series for

at

for the Taylor series for

### Notation

Using sigma notation write

at

The Taylor series for

is called the Maclaurin series for

at

### Will the Calculator Find a Taylor Series?

Maybe; try it for

### Where Does One Start?

Try using a large degree.

Can you see the pattern?

I can’t!

Find the coefficient of the degree

term

at

derivative of

Start by finding the

### Now What?

in the Taylor series for

### Use the Calculator to...

get successive expressions for

### The Pattern?

Look at a couple more:

...

is good for

and then

### Conclusion

When

The coefficient for the degree

term is

at

### Thus

in the Taylor series for

### Notice

Finding a Taylor series

means finding the coefficients.

### Taylor Series

Degree n term

Coefficient of Degree n Term

### Separate Issues

• What is the Taylor series for a function at a point?

• For what values of x does the Taylor series for a function converge?

• Does the Taylor series for a function converge to that function?

Let

are all

at

### A Weird Example

It’s hard to see that it even exists, but

Thus the coefficients in the Taylor series for

### Meaning...

This Taylor series describes the function well

but only at one point, 0.

In cases like this, Taylor series aren’t good for much.

### Lucky for Us

All of the usual suspects can be well represented by their Taylor series at all points where they are infinitely differentiable.

The Taylor series for all of our favorite functions converge to the functions at least on a decent sized interval, if not on the entire real line.

### Meaning...

• For all algebraic functions,

• for trigonometric functions and their inverses,

• for exponential functions and logarithms,

there are excellent polynomial approximations to the functions on intervals surrounding points

where the functions have derivatives

of all orders.

that is to within two decimal places of

on the interval (2,6).

Use a Taylor polynomial at

### Example

Find a polynomial approximation to

Solution?

### What Degree Do We Need?

Use your technology to figure it out!

### How Can You Tell?

If the polynomial and the function

agree at the endpoints,

they agree at all the points between.

That’s a Big Theorem.

A power series at

is a function of the form

The

### Power Series

are the coefficients.

is a power series at

### Example

All the coefficients are 1.

### Recall

If

for some positive number

then

Huge Theorem

is the Taylor series for f at a.

### So...

is the Maclaurin series for

### More Interesting Stuff

If a power series converges on an interval, we can

• differentiate term by term to get another convergent power series

• integrate term by term to get another convergent power series

• take limits term by term, on the interval of convergence

• do arithmetic term by term to get still more convergent power series.

converges to

### Example

In other words,

for a given value of x

for

means we can substitute

### True For All x...

That gives us

which is the Maclaurin series for that function.

### More Cute Tricks

means

Find the Maclaurin series for

It converges to

### One Last Example

Solution

This is the Maclaurin series for

### Thus...

It converges to the function on the whole real line.

### A Final Note

Memorize the following series:

• The Maclaurin series for sine and cosine

• The Maclaurin series for the natural exponential

The Maclaurin series for 1/(1-x)

### Be Able to Use Them

to find Taylor series for

functions obtained from the above via

• Differentiation

• Integration

Arithmetic