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Early Middle Ages - Europe. Outline – Write each heading then skip a line or 2 for the next one. Vikings William the Conqueror European Feudalism Lords/Vassals Knights Serfs Manors Feudal Pyramid. Middle Ages Germanic Invasions Rise of the Church The Pope Charles Martel Charlemagne

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Early Middle Ages - Europe

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Early Middle Ages - Europe


Outline – Write each heading then skip a line or 2 for the next one.

  • Vikings

  • William the Conqueror

  • European Feudalism

  • Lords/Vassals

  • Knights

  • Serfs

  • Manors

  • Feudal Pyramid

  • Middle Ages

  • Germanic Invasions

  • Rise of the Church

  • The Pope

  • Charles Martel

  • Charlemagne

  • Invaders In Europe


Middle Ages

  • Period from about 500-1500 , also known as the medieval period

  • First half from 500-1000 is known as the Early Middle Ages, or the Dark Ages- period of intellectual decline after the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD).

  • Had its roots in:

  • Rome, the Roman Catholic Church, and customs of Germanic tribes (northern Europe).


Germanic Invasions

  • Germanic tribes in Northern Europe such as the Goths begin sacking and pillaging cities after the Fall of Rome.

  • Disrupts Trade (No ideas being spread)

  • Downfall of Cities (little administration)

  • Population becomes rural

  • Loss of Latin language; Germans mix it with own languages and form hybrids we still see today.


Rise of the Roman Catholic Church

  • What do people do?

  • RCC provided order and security during invasions after governments became weak.

  • Structure of government changes

  • Church becomes most powerful political force in Middle Ages

  • Monks in monasteries - education


The Pope

  • Pope = leader of RCC – becomes a political force with great power over people.

  • What happens if you disagree with the pope?

  • Hierarchy –

  • Pope

  • Cardinal

  • Bishop

  • Priest

  • People


Charles (“The Hammer”) Martel

  • Leader of the Franks (modern-day France)

  • 732 Battle of Tours – Martel wins a victory that halts the Islamic advance and maintains Christianity in Western Europe

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztoNqerMrd8


Charlemagne 742-814

  • “Charles the Great” - 6’4’’ tall – imposing guy.

  • Unites parts of Western Europe, spreads Christianity

  • Named emperor by the pope in 800 after putting down a mob

  • Last strong King for a while


Invaders in Europe

  • Muslims and Magyars invade and break down central authority.

  • No clear rulers to stand up to the invaders.

  • Power of kings fades; now any leader who can fight the invaders gained followers and political strength.


Vikings

  • From Scandinavia – Northmen or Norsemen

  • Warriors and Sailors, worshiped warlike gods and had names like Eric Bloodaxe and ThorfinnSkullsplitter.

  • Used Warships to raid coastal towns

  • Technological innovators – Viking Warships

  • Leif Ericsson – reaches North America in c. 1000 AD


William the Conquerer

  • From Normandy – northern France

  • Problem of succession in England – who is going to be king?

  • Conquers England in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings – Becomes ruler


European Feudalism

  • With the invaders and conquerors inflicting fear on the people, they turn to local protection.

  • Feudalism – exchanging land for service, labor, or military service.

  • Essentially, someone with money and land is going to give it to another person. Then that person provides military support or other services in return.


Lords and Vassals – Basic Ideas

  • Lord- a landowner who gives land (fief) to another person.

  • That other person is a vassal = gets land, gives service.

  • Lords and Vassals are a generic name (tissue) that will have more specific names (Kleenex).

  • In Europe, the feudal structure looks like this :

  • Kings -> Nobles -> Knights -> Serfs


Knights

  • Knights – mounted horsemen who defend lord’s lands in exchange for fiefs

  • “Will work for land.”

  • Knights were held in high honor in Europe. They lived by a code of chivalry – fight bravely for 3 things: his lord, God, and his lady


Serfs

  • Mostly peasants – bound to the land they worked

  • Not exactly slaves, though. Lords couldn’t sell or buy them.

  • What they produce lord.


Manors

  • Manors – lord’s estate/house.

  • Serfs lived and worked on the manor. In exchange, the lord gives them food and a place to live safely.

  • Typically nobles – person of high rank by birth in society.

  • Aristocracy


Middle Ages Manor

Church

  • Manorialism – economic system for nobles and serfs

Manor House

Field of peasants working

Artisan’s shop


Feudal Pyramid – Maybe the most important part

Copy this one down somewhere in your notes – you’ll need to be familiar with this system.


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