Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work
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33. Tool selection strategy for software-based visualization in technical academic argument work. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/. Please download this ppt from lawriehunter.com Many more are available at

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Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

33

Tool selection strategyfor software-based visualizationin technical academic argument work

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Please download this ppt from

lawriehunter.com

Many more are available at

http:/lawriehunter.com/cv/presns/


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Tool selection strategy for software-based visualization in technical academic argument work

Lawrie Hunter, Kochi University of Technology, Japan

Logic and argument have proven to be significant obstacles to second language English academic writing success, markedly so for research students from East Asian cultures. The technical research paper is a masked facsimile of an argument; thus novice technical academic writing tends to be formulaic, following document structure rather than argument structure. In this frame, novice writing of abstracts is problematic at the design level.

Linear text is not a particularly supportive medium for technical academic argument work. Relations between concepts can be marked in text by rhetorical signals, but the conceptual load economies of visualization are not available. Mind maps, concept maps and rhetorical structure maps, which all embody a number of visual metaphors, are promising tools for the support of novice technical academic argument work.

Software embodiments of the above mapping types are usually marketed without discussion of the information-structure related choices involved in the selection of map type and software. This paper, referring to Hunter's (2009) decision matrix, presents a negotiated strategic pathway to the selection of map type and software for technical academic writing task, taking the example of inferred argument of an informally reported study. Reference points in this pathway include Toulmin (1958), Cañas & Novak (2006) and Kowalski (2011).

Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006) Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping.

Hunter, L. (2009) A Decision Matrix for the Use of Mapping and Mapping Software. Presented at EuroCALL 2009. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/eurocall09/

Kowalski, R. (2011) Computational logic and human thinking. Cambridge UP.

Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University Press.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Background

Maths teacher

Guidance counsellor

ESL maths teacher

(Vancouver)

EFL teacher

Technical editor

Super translation

ESP professor

(Tokyo, Tokushima, Kochi)

Maths teacher trainer (Rabaul)

ESL maths teacher (Cairns)


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

KUT scenario

  • Since 2002:

  • - Japanese government scholarships

  • - for foreign students

  • - in technical doctoral programmes.

  • ! Graduation requirements:

  • - 2+ refereed papers in top journals in 3 years

  • - NO extensions

  • - dissertation in English

    Further L2 acquisition to the point of near-independence

    during the study period

    is NOT a realistic strategy.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Design Scenario

ESP

EAP

EY

EZ

EX

TAW

EAP

HUMANITIES

English for specific purposes

English for academic purposes

Technical academic writing


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Possible approaches

most TAWprograms work here

grammar/surface features

usage/convention

most TAW writers start writing here

(simulacrum of argument)

document format

argument

supporting claim

RP language generation should start here

research

design/results

8


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

TAW best practice

Writing work

focusing on

argument and

info-structures

Niche language

acquisition to

near-independence

in TAW

Training in

use of

language models:

Style Dossier

Preparation

for work with

an editor

Preparation

for work with

a mentor


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

KUT design 2012

Hunter, L. (2012) Technical Academic Writing. Minaminokaze Press.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Argument

Logic and argument

- significant obstacles

- second language English academic writing success

- East Asian cultures.

The technical research paper

- masked facsimile of an argument

Novice technical academic writing

– formulaic, following document structure

-not argument structure

Novice writing of abstracts

- problematic at the design level.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Argument in linear text

Linear text:

-not a particularly supportive medium

for technical academic argument work.

-TAW learners are predominantly

-reading for information

-in a genre structure


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Marking relations in text

Relations between concepts

-can be marked in text by rhetorical signals.

Text signalling of relations:

-lacks the conceptual load economies

of visualization.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Marking relations in text

paragraph vs. cmap


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Map types

Mind maps, concept maps and rhetorical structure maps - embody a number of visual metaphors

-promising tools for the support of novice technical academic argument work.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Map types

Mind maps

Concept maps

Rhetorical structure diagrams

- embody a number of visual metaphors


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Mind mapping á la Tony Buzan

Mindmap links are all associations

-i.e. zero granularity


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

Mind mapping

Mindmap links are all associations

-i.e. zero granularity


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

http://freemind.sourceforge.net/

FreeMind software


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

FreeMind software

View online

Mindmap links are all associations

-i.e. zero granularity


Directed link maps

Directed-link maps

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

http://www.inspiration.com/


Textured link maps

Textured-link* maps

Boil a

liquid

Make

steam

Rotate

turbines

Generate

electricity

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

seawater

heat

fossil or

N-heat

boil

NH3

boil

H2O

!

Syntactic mapping

OTEC

plants

older type

plants

steam

20C

steam

500C

!

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

low

power

high

power

!

Association mapping

zero

energy cost

high

energy cost

*graphically textured


Textured link maps1

Textured-link* maps

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

*textually textured


Textured link maps directed links

Textured-link maps (directed links)

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)

Association mapping

v


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software: design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Mapping software: design

Software embodiments of the above mapping types are usually marketed without discussion of the information-structure related choices involved in the selection of map type and software.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software: design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Task design: inferred argument

the example of inferred argument of an informally reported study.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Sample argument map

34


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Vancouver study

play

video

clips

subjects

quickly

decide

measure

reaction time,

correctness

random

noise

with

stroke

tennis

strokes

to right

or left

tennis strokes

to right or left

Findings of Vancouver study

<

reaction to video

of tennis strokes

reaction to video

of tennis strokes

random

noise

at time

of stroke

reaction timedecision errors

Background

Target behavior?

complaints about

grunting

in pro tennis

study of

response

time in tennis

ISmaps with rhetorical frames:

argument in Sinnett (2010)

hunter systems


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Target behavior?

Grounds

Modality

Claim

since

Warrant

on account of

Backing

Toulmin model of argument


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Target behavior?

Grounds

Modality

Claim

since

unless

Warrant

Rebuttal

on account of

Backing

Enhanced Toulmin model of argument


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Target behavior?

Receiver makes more errors and is slower

Server grunts during stroke

in tennis

It is highly likely that

since

White noise in video caused reaction error and slowness

unless

Video reaction is not equivalent to tennis reaction

because

White noise has the same effect as grunting

Toulmin model of argument in Sinnett (2010)


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Use only these links

in your argument map


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Target behavior

Sinnett (2010)

Novakian rhetoric map of argument in Sinnett (2010)

claims that

Server grunts during stroke

in tennis

cause receiver slowness and error

assumes that

is supported by

Video reaction is equivalent to tennis reaction

White noise is equivalent to grunts

Subject error and slowness in video response with white noise bursts


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Outline

Background

Argument

Argument in linear text

Marking relations

Map types

Mapping software design

Task design: inferred argument

Design choices: mapping types / tools


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Design choices: mapping types

Design choices: mapping tools

present a negotiated strategic pathway to the selection of map type and software for technical academic writing task,

referring to Hunter's (2009) decision matrix,


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

2. Types of maps, info structuresQuantum levels of mapping

Argument mapping

Information structure mapping

Syntactic mapping

Association mapping

Grammatical mapping (pseudo)


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Hunter’s framework for text analysis


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Hunter’s framework subsets

Rhetorical analysis

Structure analysis


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

  • References page 1

    • Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. xv-xix). Hove: Psychology Press.

    • Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006)Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping.

    • Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T., Gomez, G., Arroyo, M. and Carvajal, R. (2004) Cmaptools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment. Downloaded April 8, 2008 from http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-283.pdf

    • Chandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology62: 233-246.

    • Chun, D. M. and Plass, J. L. 1997. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language learning and technology 1(1): 60-81.

    • Cmap tools. Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. http://cmap.ihmc.us/

    • Dansereau, D.F. (2005) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. In Tergan, S. and Keller, T. (Eds.) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. Springer. 61-81.

    • Fulkerson, R. (1996) Teaching the argument in writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    • Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 311-335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    • Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. Downloadable as a pdf from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jcgs/sci.pdf

    • Grow, G. (1996) Serving the strategic reader: cognitive reading theory
and its implications for 
the teaching of writing. Viewed June 30, 2007 at http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/index.html

    • Horn, R. E. (1998) Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press. http://www.macrovu.com


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

  • References page 2

    • Hunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at HyperText 2005, Salzburg. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/%20HT05poster0818.htm

    • Hunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons. Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438-0625. 2002. http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1

    • Hunter, L. (1998) Text nouveau, visible structure in text presentation. Computer Assisted Language Learning 11 (4) October 1998.

    • Mann, B. (1999) An introduction to rhetorical structure theory (RST). http://www.sil.org/mannb/rst/rintro99.htm

    • Moffett, J. (1992). Detecting growth in language. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook.

    • Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley.

    • Novak, J.D. and Cañas, A.J. (2006) The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), 2006. Viewed April 8, 2008 at http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm

    • Olive, Thierry (2004) Working memory in writing: Empirical evidence from the dual-task technique. European psychologist 9(1), pp. 32-42. Working paper downloaded from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15431008

    • Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Explained at http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html

    • Taboada, M. and Mann, W.C. (2006) Rhetorical Structure Theory: looking back and moving ahead. Discourse studies 8: 423-459

    • Tufte, E.R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire, CONN: Graphics Press.

    • Ueta, R., Hunter, L. & Ren, X. Text usability for non-native readers of English. Proceedings, Information Processing Society of Japan, Vol. 2003.7. Pp. 199-200.


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Thank you for your attention.

You can download this .ppt from

http://www.lawriehunter.com/

It will be archived at

http://www.lawriehunter.com/cv/presns/

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/


Tool selection strategy for software based visualization in technical academic argument work

Lawrie Hunter is a professor at Kochi University of Technology. His infostructure maps provide the underlying structure of "Critical Thinking" (Greene & Hunter, Asahi Press 2002) and "Thinking in English" (Hunter, Cengage 2008). His recent work with task constraint caused disarray at the 3rd Concept Mapping Conference in Tallinn/Helsinki. http://www.lawriehunter.com


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