Syntax semantics mapping
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Syntax-Semantics Mapping. Rajat Kumar Mohanty CFILT. Outline. Conceptual constituents Lexical categories and phrasal categories Syntax and conceptual structure Internal structure of arguments Syntactic and ontological category Mapping. Conceptual Constituents.

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Syntax-Semantics Mapping

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Syntax semantics mapping

Syntax-Semantics Mapping

Rajat Kumar Mohanty

CFILT


Outline

Outline

  • Conceptual constituents

  • Lexical categories and phrasal categories

  • Syntax and conceptual structure

  • Internal structure of arguments

  • Syntactic and ontological category Mapping

CFILT


Conceptual constituents

Conceptual Constituents

  • The semantic structure of a sentence is built up from a hierarchical arrangement of conceptual constituents.

  • Each of them belongs to a major ontological category or semantic part of speech: Thing, Place, Path, Event, State, Manner, and Property

  • They are realized syntactically by means of major phrasal constituents (such as, NP, S, PP, AP, AdvP)

CFILT


Example

Example

  • Bill ran into the room

  • Syntactic Structure:

    [S [NP Bill] [VP ran [PP into [NP the room]]] ]

  • Conceptual Structure:

([Thing Bill ], [Path TO [Place IN [Thing the room] ] ])

GO

Event

CFILT


Unmarked realization

Unmarked realization

  • Thing : NP

  • Place and Path : PP

  • Property : AP

  • Manner : AdvP

  • Event and State : S

CFILT


Lexical categories and phrasal categories

Lexical Categories and Phrasal Categories

  • Corresponding to each lexical category (e.g., N, V, A, P, etc) there is a major phrasal category (e.g., NP, VP, AP, PP, etc.).

  • Each phrasal category contains a head–plus a variety of possible modifiers (typically other phrasal categories)

  • The phrasal category maximizes the possible modifiers of the lexical category.

  • E.g., [NP the enemy’s destruction of the city ]

CFILT


Syntax and conceptual structure

Syntax and Conceptual Structure

  • Every major phrasal constituent in the syntax of a sentence corresponds to a conceptual constituent (such as, THING, EVENT, PLACE, etc.).

  • The lexical head X of a major phrasal constituent corresponds to a function in conceptual structure.

  • E.g., [S [NPThe man] [VPput [NPthe book] [PPon the table] ]]

CFILT


Example1

EVENT

THING

THING

PLACE

PUT (

THE MAN

, THE BOOK

, ON THE TABLE

Example

  • The verbput : head of the S

  • Subcategorizes

    • A subject NP

    • A direct object NP

    • A PP

  • Expresses a semantic function that maps three arguments into an [EVENT].

  • Two [THING]s and a [PLACE].

)

CFILT


Internal structure of arguments

Internal Structure of Arguments

  • The first two arguments: Man and book

    • Subcategorize nothing

    • Have no internal functional structure

    • Are treated as zero-place functions that map into [THING]

  • The head of the third argument: on

    • Subcategorizes an NP

    • Has internal functional structure

    • Expresses a one-place function that maps a [THING] into [PLACE]

CFILT


Complete functional structure

Complete Functional Structure

  • This sentence is regarded as a three-place relation between two [THING]s and a [PLACE], mediated by the verb put.

EVENT

PLACE

THING

THING

THING

PUT (

)

)

ON (

THE MAN

, THE BOOK

,

THE MAN

CFILT


Syntactic and ontological category mapping

Syntactic and Ontological Category Mapping

  • The semantics of the head of the major phrasal constituent decides the ontological category.

  • The relationship between syntactic and ontological category is not one-to-one.

  • Examples

    • Put maps into [EVENT]

    • Know, believe, be map into [STATE]

    • Table, housemap into [THING]

    • Destruction map into [EVENT]

    • Adjectives map into [PROPERTY]

    • Prepositions map into [PLACE] and [PATH]

CFILT


Mapping a thing into a path

Mapping a Thing into a Path

  • The preposition into is a function that maps a thing –the reference object – into a Path.

  • To satisfy the well-formedness conditions on the use of into, its sister phrase must be an NP (the syntactic condition) and must express a concept of a category Thing (the semantic condition).

PATH

PLACE

THING

TO (

)

IN (

)

THE ROOM

CFILT


Thematic roles

Thematic Roles

  • The case of open (Are these sentences underlying related?)

    • John opened the door with a key.

    • The door was opened by John with a key.

    • The key opened the door.

  • Thematic Roles are part of the level of conceptual structure, not part of syntax.

CFILT


Thematic roles1

Thematic Roles

  • Agent: The instigator of an event

  • Patient: A patient is directly affected by an action

  • Theme: the object in motion or being located

  • Source: the object from which motion proceeds

    • usually appears structurally as the argument of the PATH-function FROM

  • Goal: the object to which motion proceeds

    • The argument of the PATH-function of TO

CFILT


Place and path function

Place- and Path-function

PLACE

( [THING] )

PLACE-FUNCTION

Place

(e.g., in the room)

TO

FROM

TOWARD

VIA

( [THING] )

PATH

Path

(e.g., to the station)

CFILT


Examples

Examples

  • John passed the house

EVENT

PATH

THING

THING

PASS (

)

)

VIA (

JOHN

,

THE HOUSE

CFILT


Example2

Example

  • John entered the room

EVENT

PATH

THING

PLACE

ENTER (

)

TO (

)

THING

THE ROOM

JOHN

,

IN (

)

CFILT


A few examples for discussion in the context of unl

A few examples for discussion (in the context of UNL)

  • John hit Bill (theme, goal)

  • John threw the ball (source, theme)

  • Bill entered the room (theme, goal)

  • Bill received a letter (goal, theme)

  • John gave a book to Mary (source, theme, goal)

  • John got a book from Mary (goal, theme, source)

  • John promised Mary to give a book (source, goal, theme)

  • John order Mary to leave the place (source, goal, theme)

CFILT


Patient

Patient

  • The affected entity

  • Test frame:

    • What happened to NP was…

    • What Y did to NPwas…

  • Examples:

    • John hit Mary. (patient/ goal)

    • The car hit the tree. (patient/ goal)

    • Mary hit the ball into the field. (patient/ theme)

  • The NPs being patients do not eliminate their other roles.

CFILT


Actor and other thematic roles

Actor and other thematic roles

  • Actor test frame:

    • What the NP didwas…

  • It is necessary to specify what moves where under whose agency

  • Examples:

    • The sun radiates heat. (Actor/ source)

    • John ran down the hill. (Actor/ theme)

    • The sponge absorbed the water. (Actor/ goal)

CFILT


The tier theory

The Tier Theory

  • Conceptual roles fall into two tiers:

    • Thematic tier (dealing with motion and location)

    • Action tier (dealing with Actor-Patient relationship)

CFILT


Informal annotation two tiers

Informal Annotation (two tiers)

  • John hit Bill

    theme goal

    ActorPatient

  • John threw the ball

    source theme

    Actor Patient

  • Bill entered the room

    Themegoal

    Actor---

    (no sense of a patient)

CFILT


Informal annotation two tiers1

Informal Annotation (two tiers)

  • Bill received a letter

    goaltheme

    ------

  • John gave a book to Mary

    sourcethemegoal

    ActorPatient

  • John got a book from Mary

    goalthemesource

    ActorPatient

CFILT


Informal annotation two tiers2

Informal Annotation (two tiers)

  • Bill rolled down the hill

    ThemeGoal

    Actor/Patient

    • What Bill did was…

    • What happened to Bill was..

  • The wind rolled the ball down the hill

    ---themegoal

    ActorPatient

  • Agent:

    • Extrinsic instigator of an action

    • Volitional actor

  • CFILT


    Role of instrument

    Role of Instrument

    • It plays the role in the means by which the Actor accomplishes the action. (with NP can be paraphrased as by means of)

    • The Actor acts on the instrument

    • The instrument acts on the Patient

    • Examples:

      • John opened the door with a key.

      • The door was opened by John with a key.

      • The key opened the door.

    CFILT


    Sources further readings

    Sources & further Readings

    • Jackendoff, R. 1990. Semantic Structures. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    • Jackendoff, R. 1997. Semantics and Cognition. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    • Talmy, L. 1985. Force Dynamics in Language and Thought. Cognitive Science 12.

    • Cullicover, P. and W. Wilkins. 1986. Control, PRO and the Projection Principle. Language 62.

    CFILT


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