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Syntax-Semantics Mapping. Rajat Kumar Mohanty CFILT. Outline. Conceptual constituents Lexical categories and phrasal categories Syntax and conceptual structure Internal structure of arguments Syntactic and ontological category Mapping. Conceptual Constituents.

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syntax semantics mapping

Syntax-Semantics Mapping

Rajat Kumar Mohanty

CFILT

outline
Outline
  • Conceptual constituents
  • Lexical categories and phrasal categories
  • Syntax and conceptual structure
  • Internal structure of arguments
  • Syntactic and ontological category Mapping

CFILT

conceptual constituents
Conceptual Constituents
  • The semantic structure of a sentence is built up from a hierarchical arrangement of conceptual constituents.
  • Each of them belongs to a major ontological category or semantic part of speech: Thing, Place, Path, Event, State, Manner, and Property
  • They are realized syntactically by means of major phrasal constituents (such as, NP, S, PP, AP, AdvP)

CFILT

example
Example
  • Bill ran into the room
  • Syntactic Structure:

[S [NP Bill] [VP ran [PP into [NP the room]]] ]

  • Conceptual Structure:

([Thing Bill ], [Path TO [Place IN [Thing the room] ] ])

GO

Event

CFILT

unmarked realization
Unmarked realization
  • Thing : NP
  • Place and Path : PP
  • Property : AP
  • Manner : AdvP
  • Event and State : S

CFILT

lexical categories and phrasal categories
Lexical Categories and Phrasal Categories
  • Corresponding to each lexical category (e.g., N, V, A, P, etc) there is a major phrasal category (e.g., NP, VP, AP, PP, etc.).
  • Each phrasal category contains a head–plus a variety of possible modifiers (typically other phrasal categories)
  • The phrasal category maximizes the possible modifiers of the lexical category.
  • E.g., [NP the enemy’s destruction of the city ]

CFILT

syntax and conceptual structure
Syntax and Conceptual Structure
  • Every major phrasal constituent in the syntax of a sentence corresponds to a conceptual constituent (such as, THING, EVENT, PLACE, etc.).
  • The lexical head X of a major phrasal constituent corresponds to a function in conceptual structure.
  • E.g., [S [NPThe man] [VPput [NPthe book] [PPon the table] ]]

CFILT

example1

EVENT

THING

THING

PLACE

PUT (

THE MAN

, THE BOOK

, ON THE TABLE

Example
  • The verbput : head of the S
  • Subcategorizes
    • A subject NP
    • A direct object NP
    • A PP
  • Expresses a semantic function that maps three arguments into an [EVENT].
  • Two [THING]s and a [PLACE].

)

CFILT

internal structure of arguments
Internal Structure of Arguments
  • The first two arguments: Man and book
    • Subcategorize nothing
    • Have no internal functional structure
    • Are treated as zero-place functions that map into [THING]
  • The head of the third argument: on
    • Subcategorizes an NP
    • Has internal functional structure
    • Expresses a one-place function that maps a [THING] into [PLACE]

CFILT

complete functional structure
Complete Functional Structure
  • This sentence is regarded as a three-place relation between two [THING]s and a [PLACE], mediated by the verb put.

EVENT

PLACE

THING

THING

THING

PUT (

)

)

ON (

THE MAN

, THE BOOK

,

THE MAN

CFILT

syntactic and ontological category mapping
Syntactic and Ontological Category Mapping
  • The semantics of the head of the major phrasal constituent decides the ontological category.
  • The relationship between syntactic and ontological category is not one-to-one.
  • Examples
    • Put maps into [EVENT]
    • Know, believe, be map into [STATE]
    • Table, housemap into [THING]
    • Destruction map into [EVENT]
    • Adjectives map into [PROPERTY]
    • Prepositions map into [PLACE] and [PATH]

CFILT

mapping a thing into a path
Mapping a Thing into a Path
  • The preposition into is a function that maps a thing –the reference object – into a Path.
  • To satisfy the well-formedness conditions on the use of into, its sister phrase must be an NP (the syntactic condition) and must express a concept of a category Thing (the semantic condition).

PATH

PLACE

THING

TO (

)

IN (

)

THE ROOM

CFILT

thematic roles
Thematic Roles
  • The case of open (Are these sentences underlying related?)
    • John opened the door with a key.
    • The door was opened by John with a key.
    • The key opened the door.
  • Thematic Roles are part of the level of conceptual structure, not part of syntax.

CFILT

thematic roles1
Thematic Roles
  • Agent: The instigator of an event
  • Patient: A patient is directly affected by an action
  • Theme: the object in motion or being located
  • Source: the object from which motion proceeds
    • usually appears structurally as the argument of the PATH-function FROM
  • Goal: the object to which motion proceeds
    • The argument of the PATH-function of TO

CFILT

place and path function
Place- and Path-function

PLACE

( [THING] )

PLACE-FUNCTION

Place

(e.g., in the room)

TO

FROM

TOWARD

VIA

( [THING] )

PATH

Path

(e.g., to the station)

CFILT

examples
Examples
  • John passed the house

EVENT

PATH

THING

THING

PASS (

)

)

VIA (

JOHN

,

THE HOUSE

CFILT

example2
Example
  • John entered the room

EVENT

PATH

THING

PLACE

ENTER (

)

TO (

)

THING

THE ROOM

JOHN

,

IN (

)

CFILT

a few examples for discussion in the context of unl
A few examples for discussion (in the context of UNL)
  • John hit Bill (theme, goal)
  • John threw the ball (source, theme)
  • Bill entered the room (theme, goal)
  • Bill received a letter (goal, theme)
  • John gave a book to Mary (source, theme, goal)
  • John got a book from Mary (goal, theme, source)
  • John promised Mary to give a book (source, goal, theme)
  • John order Mary to leave the place (source, goal, theme)

CFILT

patient
Patient
  • The affected entity
  • Test frame:
    • What happened to NP was…
    • What Y did to NPwas…
  • Examples:
    • John hit Mary. (patient/ goal)
    • The car hit the tree. (patient/ goal)
    • Mary hit the ball into the field. (patient/ theme)
  • The NPs being patients do not eliminate their other roles.

CFILT

actor and other thematic roles
Actor and other thematic roles
  • Actor test frame:
    • What the NP didwas…
  • It is necessary to specify what moves where under whose agency
  • Examples:
    • The sun radiates heat. (Actor/ source)
    • John ran down the hill. (Actor/ theme)
    • The sponge absorbed the water. (Actor/ goal)

CFILT

the tier theory
The Tier Theory
  • Conceptual roles fall into two tiers:
    • Thematic tier (dealing with motion and location)
    • Action tier (dealing with Actor-Patient relationship)

CFILT

informal annotation two tiers
Informal Annotation (two tiers)
  • John hit Bill

theme goal

Actor Patient

  • John threw the ball

source theme

Actor Patient

  • Bill entered the room

Theme goal

Actor ---

(no sense of a patient)

CFILT

informal annotation two tiers1
Informal Annotation (two tiers)
  • Bill received a letter

goal theme

--- ---

  • John gave a book to Mary

source theme goal

Actor Patient

  • John got a book from Mary

goal theme source

Actor Patient

CFILT

informal annotation two tiers2
Informal Annotation (two tiers)
  • Bill rolled down the hill

Theme Goal

Actor/Patient

      • What Bill did was…
      • What happened to Bill was..
  • The wind rolled the ball down the hill

--- theme goal

Actor Patient

  • Agent:
    • Extrinsic instigator of an action
    • Volitional actor

CFILT

role of instrument
Role of Instrument
  • It plays the role in the means by which the Actor accomplishes the action. (with NP can be paraphrased as by means of)
  • The Actor acts on the instrument
  • The instrument acts on the Patient
  • Examples:
    • John opened the door with a key.
    • The door was opened by John with a key.
    • The key opened the door.

CFILT

sources further readings
Sources & further Readings
  • Jackendoff, R. 1990. Semantic Structures. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Jackendoff, R. 1997. Semantics and Cognition. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Talmy, L. 1985. Force Dynamics in Language and Thought. Cognitive Science 12.
  • Cullicover, P. and W. Wilkins. 1986. Control, PRO and the Projection Principle. Language 62.

CFILT

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