Antibacterial surfaces
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Antibacterial Surfaces. Vanessa Lipp. Introduction. Greater need for antibacterial surfaces Microbial resistance – MRSA has caused more deaths in the USA than HIV Medical implants – 40% of nosocomial infections caused by urinary tract infections Biofilms can also cause economic problems

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  • Greater need for antibacterial surfaces

    • Microbial resistance – MRSA has caused more deaths in the USA than HIV

    • Medical implants – 40% of nosocomial infections caused by urinary tract infections

  • Biofilms can also cause economic problems

  • Protective EPS matrix protects biofilms once they form

    • Antibacterial properties must target their formation


  • Biocide Release

    • Silver Ions

    • TiO2

  • Contact Active

    • Hydrophobic Polycations

    • PVP

  • Anti-adhesive

    • Polyethylene Glycol

    • Thermosensitive Polymers

    • Sharklet

Biocide release
Biocide Release

  • Release of silver ions

    • Antibacterial properties

  • Titanium Dioxide

    • Reactive oxygen species

  • Simple

  • Convenient

  • Low Cost

Silver ions
Silver Ions

  • Binding to DNA

    • Prevents mitosis in


  • Form strong molecular bonds with S, N, and O

    • Unusable by bacteria

  • Oxidation of other substrates used by bacteria

  • Degradable matrix – must be reloaded

  • More testing still to be done on kinetics, cytotoxicity and efficiency

Titanium dioxide
Titanium Dioxide

  • Photocatalyst with strong oxidizing power

  • Irradiated by UV rays

  • Formation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radical anions, H2O2, and other ROS

  • Continuous release

  • Requires water, UV

    light and oxygen

  • Loaded with silver ions

Contact active

  • Killing of microbes upon contact

  • Hydrophobic polycations are

    capable of disrupting the

    cell membrane of bacteria

  • Positive charge and

    hydrophobic properties

    attract bacteria

Pvp vinyl n hexylpyridinium
PVP (vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium)

  • Coating capable of killing

    Gram- and Gram+ bacteria

  • N-alkyl chains must be between

    three and eight units

    to be bactericidal

  • Repel each other in order to

    maintain flexibility

    and hydrophobicity

Pvp vinyl n hexylpyridinium1
PVP (vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium)

  • Dry PVP coated surfaces were

    able to kill 94-99% of bacteria

  • Effective in killing MRSA

    by attacking cell wall

  • Bacteria unlikely to develop resistance

  • Immobilization, flexibility, and spacing questions

Anti adhesive

  • Modification of surface with synthetic or natural polymer

  • Surfaces that constantly renew themselves by degradation

  • Release of substances that inhibit adherence

Peg polyethylene glycol
PEG (Polyethylene Glycol)

  • Hydrogel

  • Extremely hydrophilic

  • Used in conjunction with

    a negatively charged surface

  • Anti-adhesive effect of

    over 99% against three

    common types of bacteria

Thermosensitive polymers
Thermosensitive Polymers

  • Change in hydration state gives the ability to switch between adhesive and repelling state

  • Wettability of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) changed from favorable to unfavorable for marine microbes

  • Over 90% of the microorganisms were removed

  • Other “smart” polymers being tested that respond to environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH, electrical potential, or light


  • Surface modification

  • Microtopography

  • Millions of microscopic diamonds that disrupt the ability for bacteria to form biofilms

  • Inhibits growth compared to smooth surface


  • Silver ions function as biocide release system and contact-active

  • PEG acts as microbe-repelling modification

  • PEI (poly ethylene imine) derivative takes up silver ions

  • PEG grafted to surface

  • Silver ions exhausted –> microbes repelled by PEG


PEI + silver ions


  • Stability

  • Costly

  • Toxicity

  • Long term effectiveness

  • Limited in vivo research

  • Environmental effects

  • Antibiotic resistance

Is a completely microorganism free surface really possible?If so and it becomes widely used what will the effects be?

Questions or comments


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