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Dictionary of Middle Eastern People, Terms, and Events PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The focus of this unit is how the historical events of the twentieth century contributed to the twenty-first century Middle East. Dictionary of Middle Eastern People, Terms, and Events

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Dictionary of Middle Eastern People, Terms, and Events

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The focus of this unit is how the historical events of the twentieth century contributed to the twenty-first century Middle East.

Dictionary of Middle Eastern People, Terms, and Events

SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century. a. Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict. b. Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in Europe. c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East. d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

A Serbian killed the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand because Austria wanted to colonize Serbia.

How did WWI


What was the Ottoman Empires Role in WWI?

a. Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.

When WWI began (1914) much of the Middle East had been colonized by European countries and the Ottoman Empire was declining. The Ottoman Empire and Germany were part of the Central Powers that lost WWI. The former Ottoman Empire and German colonies were divided among Allied countries (mainly the British and French). The British mandate included the land of Palestine.

The Middle East in 1914 (WWI 1914-1918. ) Green represents Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI.

Who are the League of Nations that gave the rights of a mandate to the British and French?

The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world.

Students with your partner read the section from an article “What was the British Mandate?” Questions to answer:1. What is a mandate?2. Why were the British and French given the mandate over territories in SW Asia after WWI? 3. Which territories did the British control?4. Which territories did the French control?

A closer look at the mandates…

What is the true intentions of the European countries in control of

Swasia after Wwi?

Sykes Picot Agreement 1916

It is accordingly understood between the French and British governments:

That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states (a) and (b) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.

Dark Gray are French administered territories

Light Gray are British administrated territories

Lined territories are protected by the British

San Remo Agreement 1920: states that the British will give the Jews a homeland in Palestine, but the Sykes Picot Agreement 1916: secretly put together by the French and British (British wrote letters to the Arabs promising them a homeland as well).

After WWI the European countries of France and Britain were given mandates that stated they had the power to control the territories that use to be the under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

The British tried to make both the Arabs and the Jews satisfied, but both sides argued that this land called Palestine should be theirs. The British were unable to solve the religious and ethnic differences between the Palestinian Muslims and Jews.

Post WWI Middle East (1923)

Palestine was unable to declare their independence due to the Sykes Picot Agreement where the British promised the Palestinian Arabs a homeland, and they also promised the Jews a homeland as well.

WWII was the final straw that gave the British and the United Nations the reasons they needed to divide (partition) Palestine in to two homelands. One for the Jews and another for the Arabs.

As you can see many mandates were stable enough to declare their independence, but not Palestine!

The Kurds are an ethnic group found in Southwest Asia.

They are a people without a country of their own.

After WWI they were forced to live within four countries: Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria.

The Europeans did not take into account their ethnic or religious differences when they forced them to live in these other countries with people who are not ethnically like them.

Remember the Kurds a people without a country



What is the UN?The United Nations (UN) is an organization of countries who try to promote peace. This use to be called the League of Nations, but changed names after WWII.What was the UN Partition Plan?In 1947 the UN recommended Britain, who governed this land at the time as a result of WWI, give a portion of Palestine to create a Jewish state called Israel.

Yellow shows Arab territories

Orange shows the Jewish territories

The Jews accepted the land that was given to them by the UN, but the Arabs did not. The Arabs felt that all the land belonged to them.

Explain how the European partitioning caused conflict when they created the new countries of SW Asia/Middle East?

What do you think about who should have a right to the land based on this map?

Discuss this with you partner or group members.

The green represents Palestinian Muslim land control prior to the land being given to the Jews (white sections).

Links to Maps Showing Partition and Regional Conflict

Middle Eastern Empires (3000BCE to 2006)

Maps before and after WWI

Modern Socio-Political Map

The Jewish People Have A Religious Connection to the Land: A Covenant With Abraham and his Descendants

What are some possible implications of this covenant?

The Jewish People Have A Religious Connection to the Land



What other religions have a religious connection to this land?

Al-Aqsa Mosque

Chapel of the Ascension

Church of Dominus Flevit

Church of St. Anne & Pool of Bethesda

Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu

Coenaculum and King David Tomb

Dome of the Rock

Gates and Walls of the Old City

Gethsemane and Church of All Nations

Grotto of Gethsemane

Holy Sepulcher - Details

Mount Zion and Dormition Abbey

Mt of Olives and Virgin Tomb Church

The Citadel (Tower of David)

The Garden Tomb

Valley of the Kidron

Via Dolorosa

Western Wall



Additional Examples

  • Pogroms

    • riots/violence against Jews

  • Dreyfus Affair

    • Jewish man falsely accused of being spy

  • Jewish Immigration Restrictions

    • resulted in exodus in 1947

  • Arab groups seeking to return land back to Palestinians

    • PLO (Fatah-violent wing)

    • Hamas

    • Hezbollah


Concentration Camps & Extermination Sites

What is the difference?

Concentration Camp is a work camp.

Extermination Site is where Jews were brought to be killed immediately.








Theodore Herzl started the Zionist movement in the late 1800s in Europe.

Their goal was to create a Jewish homeland in Israel to escape European persecution.

Zionists believe the Jewish homeland should be in Israel because they believe they were promised the land by God through Abraham. This is known as the Covenant, or promise.

Jewish Immigration Into Israel

At first, Zionist immigration created no problems. However, as more and more Zionists immigrated the Palestinians became increasingly alarmed. Eventually, fighting broke out, with escalating waves of violence.

May 1948 State of Israel declares itself

As you can see after Israel declared themselves a state the Palestinians were supported by their Arab Muslim neighbors in attacking the new found country; however they were not successful because Israel was well armed and well organized militarily.

Why is it that the Palestinians are angry with the State of Israel?

There territory is being invaded by the Jews…

15 to 20 foot walls are being built around these Jewish settlements.


The State of Israel still has a poor relationship with its Arab neighbors, especially in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip but Peace Talks continue.

The Establishment of Israel

You can view the full timeline at or follow the links above

Conflict Causes Change

d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

Persian Gulf War or Operation Desert Storm

Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28; by that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, simmering conflict in the troubled region led to a second Gulf War–known as the Iraq War–that began in 2003. 

Persian Gulf War

Read page 125 in the CRCT book and answer the questions on the next slide

Use the Reading “Persian Gulf War (1990-91)” To Respond To the Following Questions In Your Notes

Who was the president of Iraq at the time of this conflict?

What country did Iraq invade?

Why did Iraq invade this country?

What are two reasons the US became involved in this conflict?

Who won the conflict?

September 11, 2001

What do you know about this date?

Discuss this with your group, and have someone ready to share the groups ideas.

Use the Reading “Afghanistan” To Respond To the Following Questions In Your Notes

Who was responsible for the 911 attacks?

Who helped protect the al-Qaeda in Afghanistan?

Why were the Taliban able to rebound in 2008?

What was President Obama’s response to the Taliban and al-Qaeda in 2009?

How did President Obama disagree with President Bush’s ideas on Afghanistan?

Who was caught and killed in Afghanistan in June 2011?

When does President Obama believe that the US could withdraw their troops from Afghanistan?

Why can he not withdraw them all today?

How are these political cartoons related to the Invasion of Afghanistan?

Why did the United States invade Iraq in 2003?

Use the Reading “Bush announces launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom, March 19, 2003” To Respond To the Following Questions In Your Notes

Why did the US get involved in this conflict?

Were WMDs found in Iraq?

Why did we stay in Iraq after President Bush stated the mission was completed?

What was the United States citizens opinion of entering the war? Use the article and political cartoons to support your opinion.

What was President Barack Obama’s position on being in Iraq?

What is the message that this political cartoonist is sending to his readers?

  • Who is the man in the picture?

    • President Bush




Sunni, Shia

Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, West Bank

PLO, Hezbollah, Hamas

Zionism, Holy Land

Arabs, Israel

Jews, WWII

Trigonometry, scientific method, chemistry

Kuwait, Iraq, UN

US, WMDs, Iraq


Arab: Muslim:: Israeli:?

Theodore Herzl: Zionism:: Muhammad:?

To divide into parts: partitioning:: mass leaving:?

British: Ottomans in WWI::Iraq:?

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