Chapter 5 histology the study of tissues
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Chapter 5: Histology The Study of Tissues. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve. Introductory Questions #1. After reading the the introduction on the top of pg. 135, what was the reason for Natalie having a Caesarian section ? What layers of tissue did the physician cut through?

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Chapter 5: Histology The Study of Tissues

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Chapter 5: HistologyThe Study of Tissues

Epithelial

Connective

Muscle

Nerve


Introductory Questions #1

  • After reading the the introduction on the top of pg. 135, what was the reason for Natalie having a Caesarian section ? What layers of tissue did the physician cut through?

  • Name the four major types of tissues that will be examined in this chapter. From these four types of tissues which one would bone and blood be grouped in?

  • What are some of the distinguishing characteristics of epithelial tissue?

  • How is epithelial tissue anchored?

  • What do the following terms mean or indicate:

    Simple, Stratified, Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar


IQ #1 cont’d

6) Matching each type of epithelial lining with its location in the human body.

-Intestinal tract A. Simple squamous

-Air sacs in the lungs B. Simple cuboidal

-Mouth & throat C. Simple columnar

-Male urethra D. Pseudostratified columnar

-Tubules of the kidney E. Stratified Squamous

-Nasal cavities & Resp. tract F. Stratified cuboidal

(posseses cilia)G. Stratified columnar

-Lines the urinary bladderH. Transitional epithelium

http://www.udel.edu/Biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/colorpage.htm

http://www.vetanatomists.org/LIBRARY/histopix.htm

http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/epithel/epithel.htm

http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/histology/epith.html


Useful Websites

1.http://www.udel.edu/Biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/colorpage.htm

2.http://www.vetanatomists.org/LIBRARY/histopix.htm

3.http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/epithel/epithel.htm

4. http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/histology/epith.html


Epithelial Tissues

  • Simple squamous

  • Simple cuboidal

  • Simple columnar

  • Pseudostratified columnar (ciliated)

  • Stratified squamous

  • Stratified cuboidal

  • Stratified Columnar

  • Transitional Epithleium

  • Glandular Epithelium: (Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine)


Functions of Epithelial Tissue

  • Absorption

  • Excretion

  • Protection

  • Secretion

    Key terms used to describe and ID epithelial tissues:

    -Simple: single layer

    -Stratified: multiple layers

    -Squamous: thin and flat

    -Cuboidal: cube-shaped w/large central nucleus

    -Columnar: elongated cells


Characteristics of Epithelium

  • Lack blood vessels

  • Tightly packed

  • Regenerate frequently

  • Typical site for developing Cancer Tumors

  • Forms the lining of internal and external structures and cavities.

  • Covers most organs

  • Attached to a nonliving substance called the:

    Basal lamina (basement membrane)

    Note**The basal lamina is dissolved away when cancer cells grow.


Simple Squamous

Simple Squamous

(Pg 136)

-alveolar lung sacs

-endothelium of heart & blood vessels

-cornea of the eye


Simple Cuboidal

Simple Cuboidal

(See page 137)

-forms the lining of the kidney tubules

-thyroid gland

-lines ducts & glands


Simple Columnar

Simple Columnar

(See page 137)

Lines the:

-Stomach

-Intestinal tract

(large and small)

-Fallopian tubes

-Gallbladder

Note: notice the nuclei forms a distinct single row


Pseudostratified Columnar

Pseudostratified Columnar: (See page 138)

-Possesses cilia

-Forms a single layer of cells (looks stratified)

-Located as the lining for the:

*Trachea

*Nasal cavities

*Bronchi


Stratified Squamous

  • Lines the: See page 138

    • mouth cavity (cheek cells)

    • throat

    • vagina

    • esophagus

    • skin surface

      Keratinization occurs on outer layers of the skin

      -prevents water loss

      -blocks chemicals from entering

      -inhibits microorganisms from invading


Stratified SquamousKeratinized & Unkeratinized


Stratified Cuboidal

  • Stratified Cuboidal: See page 139

  • Forms the lining of

    -Ovarian follicles

    -seminiferous tubules

    -lumens

    -larger ducts of glands such as:

    (mammary, salivary, sweat, and pancreatic)


Stratified Cuboidal


Stratified Columnar

Stratified Columnar: See page 139

  • Basal layers consist of cube-shaped cells

  • Found in the:

    • Male urethra

    • Vas deferens

    • Parts of the pharynx


Stratified Columnar


Transitional Epithelium

  • See page 140

  • Specialized to change in response to increased tension

  • Creates a barrier to prevent difusion backward

  • Forms the linings of:

    • the urinary bladder

    • passageways of the urinary system


Transitional Epithelium


IQ#1 cont’d

6) Matching each type of epithelial lining with its location in the human body.

-Intestinal tract A. Simple squamous

-Air sacs in the lungs B. Simple cuboidal

-Mouth & throat C. Simple columnar

-Male urethra D. Pseudostratified columnar

-Tubules of the kidney E. Stratified Squamous

-Nasal cavities & Resp. tract F. Stratified cuboidal

(posseses cilia)G. Stratified columnar

-Lines the urinary bladderH. Transitional epithelium


Introductory Questions #2

  • Exocrine glands have six different structural types. Name them.

  • How do Merocrine glands, Apocrine glands, and Holocrine glands differ? Where is each gland located?

  • How is serous fluid different from mucous?

  • A unicellular gland is also called a(n) gland.

  • How does connective tissue differ from epithelial tissue?

  • What are the major types of cells that comprise connective tissue?


Glandular Epitheliumhttp://www.med.uiuc.edu/histo/large/atlas/search.htm

  • Cells specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids.

  • 2 types: Exocrine and Endocrine

  • Characterized by what they release and what they release it into.

  • Endocrine Glands: secretes into blood or tissue

    • Ex. Hormones (Ch. 13)

  • Six structural types of exocrine glands (pg 141)

  • Simple exocrine glands: four types

  • Compound exocrine glands: two types


  • Introductory Questions #3

    Matching:

    • MammaryA. Apocrine

    • Sebaceous glandB. Merocrine

    • CeruminousC. Holocrine

    • Pancreatic glands

    • Salivary glands

    • Composed of Serous or mucous cells


    Connective Tissue

    • Characteristics:

      -Good blood supply

      -Cells spaced farther apart

      -Occurs throughout the body (most mass)

    • Functions:

      -Bind-Fill spaces

      -Support-Store fat

      -Protect-Prod. Blood cells


    Cell types of Connective Tissue

    • Resident Cells: present in stable numbers

      Ex. Fibroblasts & Mast cells

    • Wandering Cells: appears temporarily

      Ex. Macrophage & Leukocytes (WBC’s)


    List of Cell Types

    • Fibroblasts Produces 3 types of Fibers

    • Mast CellsInflammation & Prev. clotting

    • MacrophagesPhagocytic Cells

    • AdipocytesFat

    • ChondrocytesCartilage

    • OsteocytesBone

    • Erythrocytes & Leukocytes: Blood


    Fibroblasts

    • Star-shaped cell

    • Secretes protein to produce fibers

    • 3 Types of fibers:

      • Collagenous: thick, slightly elastic

      • Elastic: Microfibrils w/ elastin protein

      • Reticular: very thin fibers, highly branched

        *Strength:

        collagenouselasticreticular


    Fibroblasts


    Collagenous Fibers

    • Collagenous:

      -Very strong, great tensile strength

      -long, parallel bundles

      -holds bones together

      Ex. ligaments & tendons

      Many = Dense Connective Tissue (White)

      Sparse = Loose Connective Tissue


    Collagenous Fibers


    Elastic Fibers

    • Composed of Microfibrils

    • Protein is called elastin

    • Stretches and resumes back to original length

    • Called “Yellow fibers”

    • Common in areas of frequent stretching

      Ex. Vocal cords, walls of hollow organs, airways

      vertebrae, walls of heart and larger Arteries


    Mast Cells


    Elastic Fibers & Mast Cells


    Macrophages


    Adipocytes


    Chondrocytes


    Hyaline & Elastic Cartilage


    Fibrocartilage


    Osteocytes


    Blood Cells (Eosinophil & RBC’s)


    Muscle Tissue

    • Skeletal Muscle

    • Cardiac Muscle

    • Smooth Muscle (nonstriated)


    Skeletal Muscle


    Cardiac MuscleTissueLow Mag.High Mag.


    Smooth Muscle Tissue


    Nervous Tissue


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