Chapter 5 histology the study of tissues
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Chapter 5: Histology The Study of Tissues. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve. Introductory Questions #1. After reading the the introduction on the top of pg. 135, what was the reason for Natalie having a Caesarian section ? What layers of tissue did the physician cut through?

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Chapter 5: Histology The Study of Tissues

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Chapter 5 histology the study of tissues

Chapter 5: HistologyThe Study of Tissues

Epithelial

Connective

Muscle

Nerve


Introductory questions 1

Introductory Questions #1

  • After reading the the introduction on the top of pg. 135, what was the reason for Natalie having a Caesarian section ? What layers of tissue did the physician cut through?

  • Name the four major types of tissues that will be examined in this chapter. From these four types of tissues which one would bone and blood be grouped in?

  • What are some of the distinguishing characteristics of epithelial tissue?

  • How is epithelial tissue anchored?

  • What do the following terms mean or indicate:

    Simple, Stratified, Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar


Iq 1 cont d

IQ #1 cont’d

6) Matching each type of epithelial lining with its location in the human body.

-Intestinal tract A. Simple squamous

-Air sacs in the lungs B. Simple cuboidal

-Mouth & throat C. Simple columnar

-Male urethra D. Pseudostratified columnar

-Tubules of the kidney E. Stratified Squamous

-Nasal cavities & Resp. tract F. Stratified cuboidal

(posseses cilia)G. Stratified columnar

-Lines the urinary bladderH. Transitional epithelium

http://www.udel.edu/Biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/colorpage.htm

http://www.vetanatomists.org/LIBRARY/histopix.htm

http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/epithel/epithel.htm

http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/histology/epith.html


Useful websites

Useful Websites

1.http://www.udel.edu/Biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/colorpage.htm

2.http://www.vetanatomists.org/LIBRARY/histopix.htm

3.http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/epithel/epithel.htm

4. http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/histology/epith.html


Epithelial tissues

Epithelial Tissues

  • Simple squamous

  • Simple cuboidal

  • Simple columnar

  • Pseudostratified columnar (ciliated)

  • Stratified squamous

  • Stratified cuboidal

  • Stratified Columnar

  • Transitional Epithleium

  • Glandular Epithelium: (Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine)


Functions of epithelial tissue

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

  • Absorption

  • Excretion

  • Protection

  • Secretion

    Key terms used to describe and ID epithelial tissues:

    -Simple: single layer

    -Stratified: multiple layers

    -Squamous: thin and flat

    -Cuboidal: cube-shaped w/large central nucleus

    -Columnar: elongated cells


Characteristics of epithelium

Characteristics of Epithelium

  • Lack blood vessels

  • Tightly packed

  • Regenerate frequently

  • Typical site for developing Cancer Tumors

  • Forms the lining of internal and external structures and cavities.

  • Covers most organs

  • Attached to a nonliving substance called the:

    Basal lamina (basement membrane)

    Note**The basal lamina is dissolved away when cancer cells grow.


Simple squamous

Simple Squamous

Simple Squamous

(Pg 136)

-alveolar lung sacs

-endothelium of heart & blood vessels

-cornea of the eye


Simple cuboidal

Simple Cuboidal

Simple Cuboidal

(See page 137)

-forms the lining of the kidney tubules

-thyroid gland

-lines ducts & glands


Simple columnar

Simple Columnar

Simple Columnar

(See page 137)

Lines the:

-Stomach

-Intestinal tract

(large and small)

-Fallopian tubes

-Gallbladder

Note: notice the nuclei forms a distinct single row


Pseudostratified columnar

Pseudostratified Columnar

Pseudostratified Columnar: (See page 138)

-Possesses cilia

-Forms a single layer of cells (looks stratified)

-Located as the lining for the:

*Trachea

*Nasal cavities

*Bronchi


Stratified squamous

Stratified Squamous

  • Lines the: See page 138

    • mouth cavity (cheek cells)

    • throat

    • vagina

    • esophagus

    • skin surface

      Keratinization occurs on outer layers of the skin

      -prevents water loss

      -blocks chemicals from entering

      -inhibits microorganisms from invading


Stratified squamous keratinized unkeratinized

Stratified SquamousKeratinized & Unkeratinized


Stratified cuboidal

Stratified Cuboidal

  • Stratified Cuboidal: See page 139

  • Forms the lining of

    -Ovarian follicles

    -seminiferous tubules

    -lumens

    -larger ducts of glands such as:

    (mammary, salivary, sweat, and pancreatic)


Stratified cuboidal1

Stratified Cuboidal


Stratified columnar

Stratified Columnar

Stratified Columnar: See page 139

  • Basal layers consist of cube-shaped cells

  • Found in the:

    • Male urethra

    • Vas deferens

    • Parts of the pharynx


Stratified columnar1

Stratified Columnar


Transitional epithelium

Transitional Epithelium

  • See page 140

  • Specialized to change in response to increased tension

  • Creates a barrier to prevent difusion backward

  • Forms the linings of:

    • the urinary bladder

    • passageways of the urinary system


Transitional epithelium1

Transitional Epithelium


Iq 1 cont d1

IQ#1 cont’d

6) Matching each type of epithelial lining with its location in the human body.

-Intestinal tract A. Simple squamous

-Air sacs in the lungs B. Simple cuboidal

-Mouth & throat C. Simple columnar

-Male urethra D. Pseudostratified columnar

-Tubules of the kidney E. Stratified Squamous

-Nasal cavities & Resp. tract F. Stratified cuboidal

(posseses cilia)G. Stratified columnar

-Lines the urinary bladderH. Transitional epithelium


Introductory questions 2

Introductory Questions #2

  • Exocrine glands have six different structural types. Name them.

  • How do Merocrine glands, Apocrine glands, and Holocrine glands differ? Where is each gland located?

  • How is serous fluid different from mucous?

  • A unicellular gland is also called a(n) gland.

  • How does connective tissue differ from epithelial tissue?

  • What are the major types of cells that comprise connective tissue?


Glandular epithelium http www med uiuc edu histo large atlas search htm

Glandular Epitheliumhttp://www.med.uiuc.edu/histo/large/atlas/search.htm

  • Cells specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids.

  • 2 types: Exocrine and Endocrine

  • Characterized by what they release and what they release it into.

  • Endocrine Glands: secretes into blood or tissue

    • Ex. Hormones (Ch. 13)

  • Six structural types of exocrine glands (pg 141)

  • Simple exocrine glands: four types

  • Compound exocrine glands: two types


  • Introductory questions 3

    Introductory Questions #3

    Matching:

    • MammaryA. Apocrine

    • Sebaceous glandB. Merocrine

    • CeruminousC. Holocrine

    • Pancreatic glands

    • Salivary glands

    • Composed of Serous or mucous cells


    Connective tissue

    Connective Tissue

    • Characteristics:

      -Good blood supply

      -Cells spaced farther apart

      -Occurs throughout the body (most mass)

    • Functions:

      -Bind-Fill spaces

      -Support-Store fat

      -Protect-Prod. Blood cells


    Cell types of connective tissue

    Cell types of Connective Tissue

    • Resident Cells: present in stable numbers

      Ex. Fibroblasts & Mast cells

    • Wandering Cells: appears temporarily

      Ex. Macrophage & Leukocytes (WBC’s)


    List of cell types

    List of Cell Types

    • Fibroblasts Produces 3 types of Fibers

    • Mast CellsInflammation & Prev. clotting

    • MacrophagesPhagocytic Cells

    • AdipocytesFat

    • ChondrocytesCartilage

    • OsteocytesBone

    • Erythrocytes & Leukocytes: Blood


    Fibroblasts

    Fibroblasts

    • Star-shaped cell

    • Secretes protein to produce fibers

    • 3 Types of fibers:

      • Collagenous: thick, slightly elastic

      • Elastic: Microfibrils w/ elastin protein

      • Reticular: very thin fibers, highly branched

        *Strength:

        collagenouselasticreticular


    Fibroblasts1

    Fibroblasts


    Collagenous fibers

    Collagenous Fibers

    • Collagenous:

      -Very strong, great tensile strength

      -long, parallel bundles

      -holds bones together

      Ex. ligaments & tendons

      Many = Dense Connective Tissue (White)

      Sparse = Loose Connective Tissue


    Collagenous fibers1

    Collagenous Fibers


    Elastic fibers

    Elastic Fibers

    • Composed of Microfibrils

    • Protein is called elastin

    • Stretches and resumes back to original length

    • Called “Yellow fibers”

    • Common in areas of frequent stretching

      Ex. Vocal cords, walls of hollow organs, airways

      vertebrae, walls of heart and larger Arteries


    Mast cells

    Mast Cells


    Elastic fibers mast cells

    Elastic Fibers & Mast Cells


    Macrophages

    Macrophages


    Adipocytes

    Adipocytes


    Chondrocytes

    Chondrocytes


    Hyaline elastic cartilage

    Hyaline & Elastic Cartilage


    Fibrocartilage

    Fibrocartilage


    Osteocytes

    Osteocytes


    Blood cells eosinophil rbc s

    Blood Cells (Eosinophil & RBC’s)


    Muscle tissue

    Muscle Tissue

    • Skeletal Muscle

    • Cardiac Muscle

    • Smooth Muscle (nonstriated)


    Skeletal muscle

    Skeletal Muscle


    Cardiac muscletissue low mag high mag

    Cardiac MuscleTissueLow Mag.High Mag.


    Smooth muscle tissue

    Smooth Muscle Tissue


    Nervous tissue

    Nervous Tissue


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