Psy 369 psycholinguistics
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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics. Conversation & Dialog: Language Production and Comprehension in conjoined action. Conversational interaction. “ The horse raced past the barn ”. “ Really? Why would it do that? ”.

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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

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Psy 369 psycholinguistics

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

Conversation & Dialog:

Language Production and Comprehension in conjoined action


Conversational interaction

Conversational interaction

“The horse raced past

the barn”

“Really? Why would

it do that?”

Conversation is a specialized form of social interaction, with rules and organization.


Dialog is the key

Dialog is the key

  • Why so little research on dialog?

    • Most linguistic theories were developed to account for sentences in de-contextualized isolation

      • Dialog doesn’t fit the competence/performance distinction well

    • Hard to do experimentally

      • Conversations are interactive and largely unplanned

  • Pickering and Garrod (2004)

    • Proposed that processing theories of language comprehension and production may be flawed because of a focus on monologues


Processing models of dialog

Processing models of dialog

  • Pickering and Garrod (2004)

  • Interactive alignment model

    • Alignment of situation models is central to successful dialogue

    • Model’s assumptions:

      • Alignment at other levels is achieved via priming

      • Alignment at one level can lead to alignment at another

      • Model assumes parity of representations for production and comprehension


Assumptions of the model

Assumptions of the model

Garrod & Anderson (1987) The maze game

  • Pairs played a co-operative computer game

    • Move position markers through a maze of boxes connected by paths

    • Each player can only see his/her own start, goal and current positions

    • Some paths blocked by gates (obstacles) which are opened by switches

    • Gates and switches distributed differently for each player

    • Players must help their partner to move to switch positions, to change the configuration of the maze


Assumptions of the model1

Assumptions of the model

Garrod & Anderson (1987) The maze game

1-----B: .... Tell me where you are?

2-----A: Ehm : Oh God (laughs)

3-----B: (laughs)

4-----A: Right : two along from the bottom one up:

5-----B: Two along from the bottom, which side?

6-----A: The left : going from left to right in the second box.

7-----B: You're in the second box.

8-----A: One up :(1 sec.) I take it we've got identical mazes?

9-----B: Yeah well : right, starting from the left, you're one along:

10----A: Uh-huh:

11----B: and one up?

12----A: Yeah, and I'm trying to get to ...

  • 41----B: You are starting from the left, you're one along, one up? (2 sec.)

  • 42----A: Two along : I'm not in the first box, I'm in the second box:

  • 43----B: You're two along:

  • 44----A: Two up (1 sec.) counting the : if you take : the first box as being one up :

  • 45----B: (2 sec.) Uh-huh :

  • 46----A: Well : I'm two along, two up: (1.5 sec.)

  • 47----B: Two up ? :

  • 48----A: Yeah (1 sec.) so I can move down one:

  • 49----B: Yeah I see where you are:


Assumptions of the model2

Assumptions of the model

1. Alignment of situation models comes about via priming (an automatic, resource-free mechanism)

  • Pairs converge on different ways of describing spatial locations

    • Entrainmenton a particular conceptualization of the maze

      • But little explicit negotiation

      • Entrainment increases over the course of a game

Garrod & Anderson (1987) The maze game

1-----B: .... Tell me where you are?

2-----A: Ehm : Oh God (laughs)

3-----B: (laughs)

4-----A: Right : two along from the bottom one up:

5-----B: Two along from the bottom, which side?

6-----A: The left : going from left to right in the second box.

7-----B: You're in the second box.

8-----A: One up :(1 sec.) I take it we've got identical mazes?

9-----B: Yeah well : right, starting from the left, you're one along:

10----A: Uh-huh:

11----B: and one up?

12----A: Yeah, and I'm trying to get to ...

  • 41----B: You are starting from the left, you're one along, one up? (2 sec.)

  • 42----A: Two along : I'm not in the first box, I'm in the second box:

  • 43----B: You're two along:

  • 44----A: Two up (1 sec.) counting the : if you take : the first box as being one up :

  • 45----B: (2 sec.) Uh-huh :

  • 46----A: Well : I'm two along, two up: (1.5 sec.)

  • 47----B: Two up ? :

  • 48----A: Yeah (1 sec.) so I can move down one:

  • 49----B: Yeah I see where you are:


Assumptions of the model3

Assumptions of the model

2. Alignment at one level leads to alignment at other (interconnected) levels

Bigger priming effect

when the prime noun

is semantically related

to the noun in the

target

  • Cleland & Pickering (2003)

    • Semanticboost in syntactic priming

      • Primes either pre (the red sheep) or post nominally (the sheep that is red) modified NPs

      • Same (sheep to sheep), semantically related (goat to sheep), unrelated (knife to sheep)

  • Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland (2000)

    • Lexical boost similar effect with same verb


Assumptions of the model4

Assumptions of the model

3. Representational parity between comprehension and production

  • Equivalent to production-to-production effects?

    • E.g. Bock (1986), syntactic priming in language production tasks

  • Comprehension-to-production priming (BPC, 2000)

    • Priming from sentences which were only heard

    • Suggests that representations shared across modalities


Assumptions of the model5

Assumptions of the model

  • Pairs converge on different ways of describing spatial locations

    • Entrainmenton a particular conceptualization of the maze

      • But little explicit negotiation

      • Entrainment increases over the course of a game

Garrod & Anderson (1987) The maze game

  • Entrainment emerges from a simple heuristic:

    • Formulate your output using the same rules of interpretation as those needed to understand the most recent input

    • Representations used to comprehend an utterance are recycled during subsequent production

      • Leads to local consistency

      • Helps to establish a mutually satisfactory description scheme with least collaborative effort


Summary

Summary

  • “People use language for doing things with each other, and their use of language is itself a joint action.” Clark (1996, pg387)

    • Conversation is structured

      • But, that structure depends on more than one individual

    • Models of language use (production and comprehension) need to be developed within this perspective

      • Interactive Alignment model is a new theory attempting to do just this


Review for exam 4

Review for Exam 4

  • Chapters 13, 14, 15 (read 16 for interest, but I won’t test on it)

  • Same format as the last 3 exams

  • General topics:

    • Language Production

    • Conversation & dialog


Review for exam 41

Review for Exam 4

  • Language production & Dialog

    • Paradox: form over meaning is preserved

    • Speech errors - observational & experimental

    • Tip-of-the-tongue

    • Lexical bias

    • Grammaticality constraint

    • Models of speech production

      • Levelt’s model

      • Dell’s model

      • Lexical bias effect, mixed errors

    • Language use as a joint action, interplay between production and comprehension

      • Clark’s work and the Alignment model


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