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Clauses PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Clauses. Oops! I think you have the wrong clause!. What is the difference between a phrase and a clause ?. A phrase is a group of words, while a clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject . A clause can be used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

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Oops! I think you have the wrong clause!

What is the difference between a phrase and a clause?

  • A phrase is a group of words, while a clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject. A clause can be used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

Some Facts About Clauses:

  • EVERYclause has a subjectand a predicate.

SOMEclauses will express complete thoughts (these are called independent, or main,clauses).

SOME clauses will NOTexpress complete thoughts (these are called subordinate, or dependent, clauses).

When a sentence includes an independent clause and a subordinate clause, it is a __________ sentence.


Subordinate clauses can function as nouns, adverbs, or adjectives in a sentence.

*Underline the subordinating clause in each sentence.

Once the room is finished, we will buy new furniture for it.

Did you see the woman, whose entire family was killed, on the Biggest Loser?

The book that I read yesterday was about World War II.

Don’t forget to wipe your shoes before you step on the carpet.





(Note: The clauses may be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the sentence.)

Adjective Clauses

The adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Note the difference between the following:

ADJECTIVE: the blonde woman

ADJECTIVE PHRASE: the woman with blonde hair

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: the woman who has blonde hair

An adjective clause is usually introduced by a _________ _________.



Common Relative Pronounsthat which who whom whose

  • Underline the adjective clause in each sentence.

    The prizes went to students who had scored the most points.

    This is the system that works best for me.

    The boy whose dog won received a ribbon.




Occasionally adjective clauses can be introduced by when or where.

  • Examples: That is the box where I put all of my books. (it modifies “box”, a noun, so it is still an adjective clause).

Do you remember the time when I lost my book? (modifies time)


Examples: (Can you tell what was left out?)

I haven’t seen the souvenirs she bought in Mexico.


A boy I know is the drummer for the band we saw in concert.


Adverb clauses usually answer where, when, how, or why to the verb, or to what extentor under what condition.


  • Note the difference between the following:

    ADVERB:He fell down.

    ADVERB PHRASE: He fell down the hill.

    ADVERB CLAUSE: When he fell down, he hurt his knee.

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb.

Tell which word each clause modifies and how it modifies it.

where you sit

When winter sets in, many animals hibernate.

(tells )

You may sit wherever you wish. (tells )

when animals hibernate

Meg looks as though she has seen a ghost.

(tells )

how Meg looks

Josh is happy because he has a new job.

(tells )

why Josh is happy

Ty can run faster than Matt can. (tells )

how much faster

to what extent

If Cailyn is not sick, we will go to the fair.

(tells )

under what conditions we will go

Note: When a sentence begins with an adverb clause, it is followed by a comma, but if the clause is at the end of the sentence, you do not need a comma to separate it from the independent clause. When the clause is in the middle of the sentence, you may or may not need to set it off with commas (one before, and one after).

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

after as though since when

although because so that whenever

as before than where

as if how though wherever

as long as if unless whether

as soon as in order that until while

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun.

Common Introductory Words for Noun Clauses

howwhateverwhich whom

thatwhenwho whomever

what whetherwhoever why

*List the 5 different ways a noun clause can be used.

That she was only sixteen was a secret at the party. ________


We suddenly remembered who she was. _______________

direct object

The judges gave whoever participated a ribbon. ____________

indirect object

I was amazed by how tall the building was. _______________

object of prep.

A stuffed animal was what Mary was trying to win. ____________________

predicate nominative

*Underline the subordinate clause and label it as an adjective, adverb, or noun clause.

Since none of us owned bikes, we decided to rent some. __________

adverb clause


adjective clause

The man who rented us the bikes was helpful. ____________________


adverb clause

We were in trouble when Garrett’s bike got a flat tire. _______________


How we would repair it became the topic of a heated discussion. ____________________


noun clause

We decided to take the bike to whatever bike shop was nearest us.



noun clause

The thing that worried us was getting our money back for fixing it. __________________


adjective clause

When we returned our bikes, we showed the man the receipt.



adverb clause

He refunded us the money we had spent to fix the tire. ____________________


adjective clause (the word “that” was left off)

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