Written academic english
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(WRITTEN ACADEMIC ENGLISH). UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA. By Dr. Tri Wintolo Apoko, M.Pd. FEATURES OF ACADEMIC WRITING. It is formal in an impersonal or objective style (often using impersonal pronouns and phrases and passive verbs)

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Written academic english

(WRITTEN ACADEMIC ENGLISH)

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA

By Dr. Tri Wintolo Apoko, M.Pd.


Features of academic writing

FEATURES OF ACADEMIC WRITING

  • It is formal in an impersonal or objective style (often using impersonal pronouns and phrases and passive verbs)

  • Cautious language is frequently used in reporting research and making claims

  • Vocabulary appropriate for particular academic context is used

  • It often contains references to other writer’s publications, sometimes including quotations


Academic styles

ACADEMIC STYLES

  • Written academic English will not normally contain:

    1. Contractions

    2. Hesitation Fillers

    3. A number of phrasal Verbs

    4. Personal pronouns

  • Academic styles should cover:

    1. Passive verb tenses

    2. Using introductory

    3. Modal verbs


Paraphrasing

PARAPHRASING

  • By Changing the Vocabulary (Verbs/Nouns)

  • By Changing the Verb Form (from Active to Passive)

  • By Changing the Word Class (e.g. from verb to noun phrase)

  • By Synthesis (to combine two/more pieces of information from other writers)


Written academic english

  • She examined the difficulties that … . becomes

    She investigated the problems that … .


Written academic english

  • Johns (1987:115) analyzed the students’ difficulties and … . becomes

    The students’ difficulties were analyzed by Johns (1987:115) and … .


Written academic english

  • The reports were completed in May … . becomes

    The completion of the reports in May ensured that the students had time to revise before their examination


Written academic english

  • Johns and Dudley (1985:75) touched on the problems created by the lecturers’ use of colloquial words and phrases … This use of informal language was also noted by Jackson and Bilton (2006:115) who investigated geology lectures given in English …


Reporting verbs commonly used in paraphrases summaries

Observes

Has observed

Observed

Points out

Remarks

Says

Affirms

Argues

Assumes

Believes

Claims

Concludes

Explains

Finds

Implies

Maintains

Suggests

reports

Adds

Agrees

Clarifies

Comments

Considers

Contradicts

Demonstrates

Denies

Describes

Determines

Disagrees

Discusses

Emphasizes

Infers

Maintains

Recommends

Rejects

views

REPORTING VERBS COMMONLY USED IN PARAPHRASES & SUMMARIES


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

  • It is needed to show that the writing is finished

  • A variety of ways in making a conclusion:

    In short, …

    In a word, …

    In brief, …

    To sum up, …

    In conclusion, …

    On the whole, …

    Altogether, …

    In all, …

    Or:

    Therefore/thus/on this basis/given this, it can/may be concluded/deduced/infered that …


Example

EXAMPLE

DEFINISI SINTAKSIS

  • Menurut Verhaar, sintaksis adalah tata bahasa yang membahas hubungan antar-kata dalam tuturan1. E. Sapir dalam R. Lado menyatakan bahwa tata bahasa sering kali diartikan sebagai definisi-definisi tradisional yang diberikan kepada bagian-bagian kalimat/tuturan (part of speech) yang tidak menunjukkan fakta2.

  • Hartmann dan Stork mengemukakan sintaksis adalah cabang tata bahasa mengenai studi perhimpunan kata-kata dalam kalimat-kalimat dan alat hubungan seperti tertib kata atau infleksi3. Mario Pei dan F. Gaynor menambahkan bahwa sistaksis adalah studi dan aturan-aturan dari hubungan kata-kata satu sama lainnya sebagai pernyataan gagasan dan sebagai bagian-bagain dari struktur-struktur kalimat; studi dan ilmu bangunan4.

  • Dari pernyataan yang dikemukakan di atas dapat dirumuskan bahwa sintaksis adalah studi perhimpunan dan hubungan antar kata, frasa, dan klausa dalam bentuk kalimat atau tuturan.

    1 J.W.M. Verhaar. Asas-asas Linguistik Umum. (Yogyakarta: UGM Press, 1996), p. 161.

    2 Robert Lado & Charlos C. Fries. Linguistik di Pelbagai Budaya : Linguistik Terapan untuk Guru Bahasa. Diterjemahkan oleh : Soenjono Dardjowidjojo. (Bandung : Penerbit Ganaco NV, 1979), p. 59.

    3 R.R.K. Hartmann & F.C. Stork. Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (London : Applied Science Publishers Ltd, 1976), p. 231.

    4 Mario Pei & Frank Gaynor. Dictionary of Linguistics. (New Jersey: Little Field, Adams & Co., 1975), p. 39.


Quotations referencing

QUOTATIONS & REFERENCING

  • They are included to show that you have read around the subject & are aware of what has been written about it

  • They are also used to demonstrate support for your own ideas, points of view, and findings, and to show examples or evidence

  • When you include quotations, they should be acknowledged with correct reference conventions and listed at the end of your writing


Basic ways of using quotations

BASIC WAYS OF USING QUOTATIONS

  • Quotation Marks (inverted commas)

    They are put around the author’s actual words, which are then incorporated in the text.

  • The indented Quotation

    It starts further from the margin than the other lines, and it may be in a different type size or style; the quotations marks are usually omitted. This is normally used for longer quotations (three or more lines)


Written academic english

  • Academic writers need to be cautious in their claims. In this respect, vague language is important as “it allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty, and humility” (Hyland, 1994:241)


Written academic english

  • Jordan (1977: 240) also draws attention to the necessity for being careful:

    A feature of academic writing is the need to be cautious in one’s claims and statements. In other words, you may indicate your certainty and commitment in varying degrees.


References

REFERENCES

  • At the end of an essay, arranged in alphabetical order (A-Z) of the author’s surname or the name of organization.

  • If more than one author has the same surname, they should appear in alphabetical order of the initial of the first name.

  • If more than one reference is given by the same author, the earlier dated reference will appear first.

  • If two or more references by the same author appear in the same year, they will be labeled in sequence with letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year


Written academic english

  • Beard, R.M. and J. Hartley (1984). Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. London: Harper and Row.

  • Leech, G. and J. Svartvik (2002) A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

  • Northedge, A. (1990). The Good Study Guide. Milton Keynes: The Open University

  • Smith, F. (1982). Writing and the Writer. London: Heinenmann Educational.


Footnotes

FOOTNOTES

  • A Footnote is a note at the bottom (or foot) of a page in a book or journals

  • It is used to explain a word or other item, or to add some special information or a reference.


Latin words abbreviations

LATIN WORDS & ABBREVIATIONS


Latin words abbreviations1

LATIN WORDS & ABBREVIATIONS


Written academic english

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


Written academic english

FOOTNOTE

George Leech and John Svartvik (2002). A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited., p. 56

REFERENCE

Leech, G. and J. Svartvik (2002). A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.


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