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Technological change and institutional implications Dag Standal SINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture. The ”Norwegian model”. 1990-91: Rejected the introduction of a ITQ model 1991- : IVQ model - :Strong emphasis on: diverse ownership of quotas and vessels (rural policy)

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technological change and institutional implications dag standal sintef fisheries and aquaculture

Technological change and institutional implicationsDag StandalSINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture

the norwegian model
The ”Norwegian model”
  • 1990-91: Rejected the introduction of a ITQ model
  • 1991- : IVQ model
  • - :Strong emphasis on:
  • diverse ownership of quotas and vessels (rural policy)
  • maintain a diverse fleet structure via the allocation policy (”the trawl ladder”)
  • IVQ model: integrates vessels and quotas in one system (market)
  • Input regulations (technology) and output (biology) are integrated.
  • Main challenge in terms of capacity: balancing input and output regulations
  • Cut down unprofitable overcapacity !
table 1 number of vessels above 28 meters and change 1988 and 2003
Table 1Number of vessels above 28 meters and % change, 1988 and 2003.
  • Length group(m) 1988 2003 %
  • 28 - 39,9 232 93 -60
  • 40 - 49,9 125 107 -14
  • 50 - 59,9 74 74 0
  • 60 - 43 88 +105
  • Total : 474 362 - 24
  • Reduction in number of vessels
  • Structural changes
table 2 technical parameters for arctic trawlers built in 1988 2002 cod shrimp trawler
Table 2Technical parameters for arctic trawlers built in 1988 – 2002 (cod/shrimp trawler).
  • Building year : 1988 2002 1988-2002
  • Lenght (m): 61.50 64.00 1.04
  • Breadth (m): 12.80 16.60 1.30
  • Prod. cap (tons): 20 35 1.75
  • GRT: 1905 2574 1.35
  • HP: 3342 8046 2.41
  • Number of trawls 1 3 2.00
  • Catch (tons) 1000-1500 3000-4000 2-3
  • Trawl doors (tons): 4.5 7.0 1.56
  • Crew (number.): 14 14 1.00
  • Electronics: echo sounder echo sounder

Catch sensor catch sensor

trawl sensor

GPS

table 3 development in size for different gears 1988 2003
Table 3Development in size for different gears, 1988 - 2003 .
          • Gear- Gear Gear
          • dimension dimension factor (R)
  • Gear 1988 2003 1998-2003
  • Shrimptrawl : 168 294 3.00
  • Cod trawl: 60 120 2.00
  • Blue whiting trawl: 1200 2400 4.00
  • Purse seine: 105 280 180 000 1.71
  • Long line: 20 000 35 000 1.75

Source: Norwegian gear producers and fishermen, 2004.

institutional boundaries and technological adaptations norway
Institutional boundaries and technological adaptations, Norway.
  • Unregulated species in Norwegian fisheries, 2004 (tons):
  • Blue whiting : 852 000 Total Nowegian catch: 2 549 000 tons.
  • Shrimp : 60 000
  • Tusk/ling : 27 000
  • Horse mackerel: 10 000
  • Other : 30 000
  • Total (unreg.) : 979 000= 38. 40 % of total ctach.
  • Source, Fisheries Directorate, 2006.
  • ”Technology does not follow the institutional boundaries”
  • Combination of closed and restricted open access fisheries
  • Capacity expanding adaptations !
capacity feedback systems
Capacity feedback systems

Stock

(border)

TAC

Cod, herring, mackerel, etc.

Allocation policy (output)

Institutional boundaries

Institutional boundaries

Structure policy (markets)

Restricted open access /combined fisheries

Restricted open access /combined fisheries

Capacity (input)

Capacity feedback

Capacity feedback

the unit quota system 1984 2006
The Unit Quota System, 1984-2006.

Year : No. of quotas Duration No. of

pr. vessel (years) quota-markets

1984-1997: 2 13 3

1997-2003: 3 18 3

2004 -2005: 3 eternal 1

2005- : 3 20/25 1

future challenges technological development
Future challenges- technological development?
  • ”Stagnated technology” (path dependency and a predictable pattern)
  • No paradigmatic innovations sice the 70’s (excpept for electronics, GPS etc.).
  • Heavy fuel consumption, strong increase in fuel costs
  • Deep sea fleet towards a critical mass in regard to innovations?
          • No. Of vessels, 2008 2015
  • Cod / shrimp trawlers : 50 decline
  • Herring/mackerel/blu whiting : 47 decline
  • Long lining : 25 decline
  • Loosing out of the national innovation system?
  • The deep sea fleet as future market for todays manufacturers of equipment ?
  • Further pressure on todays structural policy or a change towards ITQ.
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