Technological change and institutional implications dag standal sintef fisheries and aquaculture
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Technological change and institutional implications Dag Standal SINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture. The ”Norwegian model”. 1990-91: Rejected the introduction of a ITQ model 1991- : IVQ model - :Strong emphasis on: diverse ownership of quotas and vessels (rural policy)

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Technological change and institutional implications dag standal sintef fisheries and aquaculture

Technological change and institutional implicationsDag StandalSINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture


The norwegian model
The ”Norwegian model”

  • 1990-91: Rejected the introduction of a ITQ model

  • 1991- : IVQ model

  • - :Strong emphasis on:

  • diverse ownership of quotas and vessels (rural policy)

  • maintain a diverse fleet structure via the allocation policy (”the trawl ladder”)

  • IVQ model: integrates vessels and quotas in one system (market)

  • Input regulations (technology) and output (biology) are integrated.

  • Main challenge in terms of capacity: balancing input and output regulations

  • Cut down unprofitable overcapacity !


Table 1 number of vessels above 28 meters and change 1988 and 2003
Table 1Number of vessels above 28 meters and % change, 1988 and 2003.

  • Length group(m) 1988 2003 %

  • 28 - 39,9 232 93 -60

  • 40 - 49,9 125 107 -14

  • 50 - 59,9 74 74 0

  • 60 - 43 88 +105

  • Total : 474 362 - 24

  • Reduction in number of vessels

  • Structural changes


Table 2 technical parameters for arctic trawlers built in 1988 2002 cod shrimp trawler
Table 2Technical parameters for arctic trawlers built in 1988 – 2002 (cod/shrimp trawler).

  • Building year : 1988 2002 1988-2002

  • Lenght (m): 61.50 64.00 1.04

  • Breadth (m): 12.80 16.60 1.30

  • Prod. cap (tons): 20 35 1.75

  • GRT: 1905 2574 1.35

  • HP: 3342 8046 2.41

  • Number of trawls 1 3 2.00

  • Catch (tons) 1000-1500 3000-4000 2-3

  • Trawl doors (tons): 4.5 7.0 1.56

  • Crew (number.): 14 14 1.00

  • Electronics: echo sounder echo sounder

    Catch sensor catch sensor

    trawl sensor

    GPS


Table 3 development in size for different gears 1988 2003
Table 3Development in size for different gears, 1988 - 2003 .

  • Gear- Gear Gear

  • dimension dimension factor (R)

  • Gear 1988 2003 1998-2003

  • Shrimptrawl : 168 294 3.00

  • Cod trawl: 60 120 2.00

  • Blue whiting trawl: 1200 2400 4.00

  • Purse seine: 105 280 180 000 1.71

  • Long line: 20 000 35 000 1.75

    Source: Norwegian gear producers and fishermen, 2004.


  • Tabell 4 formula estimating technical development
    Tabell 4Formula, estimating technical development


    Tabell 5 technical capacity development entire fleet above 28 meters 1988 og 2003
    Tabell 5Technical capacity development entire fleet above 28 meters, 1988 og 2003.


    Institutional boundaries and technological adaptations norway
    Institutional boundaries and technological adaptations, Norway.

    • Unregulated species in Norwegian fisheries, 2004 (tons):

    • Blue whiting : 852 000 Total Nowegian catch: 2 549 000 tons.

    • Shrimp : 60 000

    • Tusk/ling : 27 000

    • Horse mackerel: 10 000

    • Other : 30 000

    • Total (unreg.) : 979 000= 38. 40 % of total ctach.

    • Source, Fisheries Directorate, 2006.

    • ”Technology does not follow the institutional boundaries”

    • Combination of closed and restricted open access fisheries

    • Capacity expanding adaptations !


    Table 6 norwegian catches blue whiting 1988 and 2003
    Table 6 Norway. Norwegian catches blue whiting, 1988 and 2003.


    Tabell 7 norwegian catches shrimp 1988 and 2003
    Tabell 7 Norway. Norwegian catches shrimp, 1988 and 2003.


    Capacity feedback systems
    Capacity feedback systems Norway.

    Stock

    (border)

    TAC

    Cod, herring, mackerel, etc.

    Allocation policy (output)

    Institutional boundaries

    Institutional boundaries

    Structure policy (markets)

    Restricted open access /combined fisheries

    Restricted open access /combined fisheries

    Capacity (input)

    Capacity feedback

    Capacity feedback


    The unit quota system 1984 2006
    The Unit Quota System, 1984-2006. Norway.

    Year : No. of quotas Duration No. of

    pr. vessel (years) quota-markets

    1984-1997: 2 13 3

    1997-2003: 3 18 3

    2004 -2005: 3 eternal 1

    2005- : 3 20/25 1




    Future challenges technological development
    Future challenges- technological development? trawlers, 1991-2006.

    • ”Stagnated technology” (path dependency and a predictable pattern)

    • No paradigmatic innovations sice the 70’s (excpept for electronics, GPS etc.).

    • Heavy fuel consumption, strong increase in fuel costs

    • Deep sea fleet towards a critical mass in regard to innovations?

      • No. Of vessels, 2008 2015

  • Cod / shrimp trawlers : 50 decline

  • Herring/mackerel/blu whiting : 47 decline

  • Long lining : 25 decline

  • Loosing out of the national innovation system?

  • The deep sea fleet as future market for todays manufacturers of equipment ?

  • Further pressure on todays structural policy or a change towards ITQ.


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