Implementing the Recomendations of the World Bank/WHO World Report
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Implementing the Recomendations of the World Bank/WHO World Report in Ibero-America and the Caribbean. Shaping the Road Network for Road Injury Protection. Three critical elements to consider. Speeds on our roadways Safer routes for Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Handicapped

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Shaping the Road Network for Road Injury Protection

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Shaping the road network for road injury protection

Implementing the Recomendations of the World Bank/WHO World Report in Ibero-America and the Caribbean

Shaping the Road Network for Road Injury Protection


Three critical elements to consider

Three critical elements to consider

Speeds on our roadways

Safer routes for Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Handicapped

Crash protective roadsides


Cause of accidents

Cause of Accidents

Human Factors (95%)

65%

24%

3%

4%

2%

Roadway

(29%)

2%

Vehicle (8%)


All roads are safe at low speeds

Speed by itself does not kill, it is the difference of speed between vehicles or roadside objects that KILLS or INJURES

All roads are safe atlow speeds

Most motorists will drive at a speed that is at or slightly above what they think is a safe speed, regardless of the posted speed limit


Arbitrarily low speed limits do not work

Arbitrarily low speed limits do not work

Arbitrarily Low Speed Limits


Differential speed limits do not work either

differential speed limits do not work either

Differential

Speed Limits


We should classify our roads set speed limits by road function and enforce vigorously

We should classify our roads, set speed limits by road function, and enforce vigorously

  • Preferably there would be no exceptions for

    • Geometric design problems

    • Narrow bridges

    • Land use


We should classify our roads and set speed limits by function 1 2

We should classify our roads and set speed limits by function (1-2)

* Not included in World Report

  • We should consider

    • Super highways*up to 110 km/h

    • Flow roads, interurban80 to 100 km/h

    • Distributor roads through cities50 to 80 km/h

    • Residential access road40 to 60 km/h


We should classify our roads and set speed limits by function 2 2

We should classify our roads and set speed limits by function (2-2)

* Not included in World Report

Super highways are access-controlled and pedestrians or cyclists should never be present*

Flow roads should have separate bike and pedestrian lanes

Distributor roads through cities have wide pedestrian and cycle facilities

Residential access roads should have ample sidewalks


Speed humps effective speed control

Speed Humps – effective speed control?

A properly designed and constructed speed hump will tend to reduce the speed of cars and trucks

Improperly designed and constructed speed bumps damage cars, buses, etc. They limit response time of firefighters.

Proper speed bumps become a play toy for motorcycles creating speed variations that are dangerous

“Speed Pillows” are being used in Chile with some success


Road networks some reflections on future roadways

Road Networks, some reflections on Future Roadways

  • Future roadways

    • Require a modernization of standards

    • Require a modernization of safety knowledge

    • Even if we add 3 to 5% of new roads each year

    • After 10 years we still have 10,000 km of dangerous road infrastructure

    • If we continue to design with old standards we will have almost 17,000 km of dangerous roads which will be used by our great grandchildren


How long does it take to modernize our standards

How long does it take to modernize our standards?

  • Most of our countries allow large and very large roadside sign supports adjacent to the pavements

  • Most of our countries use 1960 roadside barrier standards

    • These barriers may look good to the untrained eye

    • But, these barriers are death traps


One easy solution for roadside barriers

One easy solution for roadside barriers

Simply require that all barriers, barrier terminals, and crash cushions be “Crash Tested” according to international standards

That way we can stop making new drawings each time a new product comes on the market


Shaping the road network for road injury protection

20º

65

km/h

38 t

XX

YY

NCHRP 350

15º

80

km/h

36 t

15º

80

km/h

36 t

20º

65

km/h

30 t

TL3

N2

EN 1317

20º

80

km/h

16 t

25º

100

km/h

2 t

25º

70

km/h

2 t

20º

110

km/h

1,5 t

20º

70

km/h

13 t

725

15º

80

km/h

8 t

15º

70

km/h

10 t

595

595

572

Transverse Kinetic Energy (kj)

20º

100

km/h

820 kg

20º

80

km/h

1,5 t

20º

70

km/h

820 kg

462

20º

100

km/h

0.9 t

288

138

127

132

67

82

43

H1

N1

TL2

H2

H3

H4a

TL5

TL6

H4b

TL3

TL4

N2

Containment Level


An example cable barriers

An Example: Cable Barriers

Tested to both EN and NCHRP standards

3.5 Km of median with cable barrier on each side, that is 7 km of barrier

Over 300 impacts in 5 years

No fatalities and no serious injuries

No median crossover accidents

Various motorcycle impacts, one fatal but not caused by cables

Only posts are replaced, original cables are still in use


How long does it take to modernize our standards1

How long does it take to modernize our standards?

Many of our drainage structures are deadly

We keep with the same design standards and no one knows why


Road networks some reflections on present roadways

Road Networks, some reflections on Present Roadways

  • Existing roadways

    • Pavement enhancements

      • Speeds will increase

      • Must be accompanied by other safety elements

    • Some roads may have to wait


Maintaining our investments

maintaining our investments

Barriers that are not repaired can not be expected to save lives

Crash cushion repairs may be as little as 5% of the initial investment

Crash cushions that are not repaired can be very dangerous and will be destroyed with a second impact


Things that we can do right now

Things that we can do right now

  • Make greater use of International Road Assessment Program (i-RAP) and Road Safety Audits to identify our needs.

  • Dedicate at least 10 to 20 % of our road budgets to:

    • Train ministry and other professionals

    • Upgrade the safety of existing roadways

    • Maintain existing road safety infrastructure

    • To conduct Research

    • To modernize our standards

  • Each highway agency must have an ongoing program for timely striping and signing of roads

  • Promote modern road safety education at our universities

  • Consider road safety throughout the design process and not as an afterthought

  • Ensure that road safety items will always be funded and not deleted from projects because we ran out of money


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