Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis
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Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis. Complexity of metabolism. Metabolism. *catabolism *anabolism. *potential energy. Conservation of Energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to perform work. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is stored energy.

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Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis

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Energy, Catalysis and Biosynthesis

Complexity of metabolism

Metabolism

*catabolism

*anabolism

*potential energy


Conservation of Energy

Energy is defined as the capacity to perform work.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.

Potential energy is stored energy.


Free energy, stability, and change

Free energy

Change in free energy = DG

Gravitational Motion

Diffusion

Chemical Reaction


*energetically unfavorable

*energetically favorable

Free energy, stability, and change

Equilibrium

*chemical equilibrium

DG = 0, no net change in the system

Chemical reactions with free energy changes:


*Multistep open hydroelectric system

Metabolic Disequilibrium


Enzymes

  • Metabolism is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.

  • Most metabolic reactions require the assistance of enzymes, proteins that speed up chemical reactions.


Enzymes

Induced Fit


Enzymes

Enzymes lower the barrier of EA

Enzymes are catalytic proteins


Activation Energy

  • Activation energy

    • Activates the reactants

    • Triggers a chemical reaction

  • Enzymes lower the activation energy for chemical reactions.

Activation

energy barrier

Activation

energy barrier

reduced by

enzyme

Enzyme

Reactant

Reactant

Energy level

Energy level

Products

Products

(b) With enzyme

(a) Without enzyme


Enzymes


Enzymes

Physical and chemical properties affect enzyme activity:

Substrate

Active site

*activators

*cofactor

Substrate

Inhibitor

*coenzyme

Active site

*inhibitors

Substrate

Active site

Inhibitor


ATP and Cellular Work

Main types of (cellular) work: mechanical

transport

chemical


Energy

Triphosphate

Diphosphate

Adenosine

Adenosine

P

P

P

P

P

P

Phosphate

(transferred to

another molecule)

ATP

ADP

The Structure of ATP

  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

    • Consists of adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups

    • Is broken down to ADP and a phosphate group, releasing energy


The Structure of ATP


ATP and Cellular Work

Motor protein

ATP

ADP

P

ADP

P

Protein moved

(a) Motor protein performing mechanical work

Solute

Transport

protein

P

P

ATP

ADP

P

Solute transported

(b) Transport protein performing transport work

P

X

P

X

Y

ATP

ADP

P

Y

Reactants

Product made

(c) Chemical reactants performing chemical work


ATP and Cellular Work


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