Global warming
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Global Warming. "The warnings about global warming have been extremely clear for a long time. We are facing a global climate crisis. It is deepening. We are entering a period of consequences." -Al Gore . Team 10. By: Kharthik, Meraz, Parmeet, Teji, Viven and Garav. Introduction.

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Global warming

Global Warming

"The warnings about global warming have been extremely clear for a long time. We are facing a global climate crisis. It is deepening. We are entering a period of consequences."

-Al Gore

Team 10

By: Kharthik, Meraz, Parmeet, Teji, Viven and Garav



Global warming has been a problem for many years now and it is worsening each and every day. There are many causes to this problem and various solutions have been made; but these solutions mean nothing if they are not implemented by the world society. If we 

continue to live on as we

do now, the world soon 

may end up looking like 


Causes of global warming

Causes of Global Warming

  • Mining and emission of fossil fuels 

    • Gasoline

    • Coal

  • Several heat-trapping gases  

    • Carbon Dioxide

    • Nitrous Oxide

    • Methane

    • Chlorofluorocarbons

  • Deforestation

Fossil fuels

Fossil Fuels

  • Industrial Revolution in late 18th century marked beginning of combustion of fossil fuels for energy

  • When these fossil fuels are burned they release a gas called carbon dioxide

  • The process is called internal combustion

  • By 1990 the Earth's atmosphere had 25 times more CO2 in the atmosphere

How greenhouse gases lead to global warming

How Greenhouse Gases Lead To Global Warming

1) Solar radiation from the sun makes it's way down to earth in the form of visible light. 2) The majority of the radiation is absorbed by the Earths surface. 3) However some radiation is reflected by the earth and the atmosphere4) some of the infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere, and some is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gas molecules. As a result, earth's surface and lower atmosphere warm up significantly (global warming).

Greenhouse gases of the atmosphere

Greenhouse Gases of the Atmosphere

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

  • Methane (CH4)

  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)

Co 2 in the atmosphere

CO2 in the Atmosphere

  • Produced by many internal combustion engine locomotives

    • Cars

    • Trains

    • Airplanes

    • Ships

  • CO2 in the atmosphere acts as a blanket 

  • When the CO2 in the atmosphere thickens it traps more heat

  • When more heat is trapped, the Earth becomes warmer

Average carbon concentration

Average Carbon Concentration

Nitrous oxide emissions

Nitrous Oxide Emissions

  • Causes of Nitrous Oxide emissions include:

    • Soil Management In Agriculture

      • Synthetic fertilizers

    • Production of Nitric Acid

      • By-product in the process of making Nitric Acid

    • Human sewage

      • N2O may be generated during nitrification and dinitrification

    • Manure management of livestock

      • Decomposition of nitrogen in organic manure 

    • Mobile & stationary sources of fossil fuel combustion

      • Emitted in all automotive vehicles

  • Humans are responsible for 96% of N2O emissions

Methane emissions

Methane Emissions

  • Methane (CH4) is known to be another significant greenhouse gas

  • Concentration of methane has doubled since the last 200 years

  • The gas is produced through relatively unavoidable causes

    • Organic compounds caught in waterlogged soils 

      • Rice

      • Paddy fields

    • Rotting waste beneath soil

      • Landfills

    • Cattle farming due to the digestion

Average methane concentration

Average Methane Concentration

Chlorofluorocarbons cfc s

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)

  • Modern day uses include:

    • Chemicals used to propel the air from aerosol cans

    • Cooling agent for refrigerators and air conditioners

  • Became popular in the industry since the 1970s

  • 10,000 times more effective than carbon dioxide at trapping heat

  • Play a role in depleting the ozone layer



  • Rain forests are important because:

    • They hold half the animal species in the world

    • 90,000 of 250,000 known botany derive from the rain forests

    • Have great biodiversity & represent 60 million years of biodiversity

    • One in four chemists will have chemical compounds derived from the rain forest

    • Botany of rain forests provide for many medicines such as antibiotics

    • 3,000 plants have anti-cancer properties in which 70 per cent are grown in the rain forest

    • By-products of tropical forests include essentials such as oils, latex and gum

  • Only 7 per cent of global landmass is the rain forest

Why is deforestation relevant

Why is deforestation relevant?

  • Trees are carbon banks

  • Trees absorb CO2 and release O2

  • 6CO2 + 6H2O        C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Therefore, through the process of photosynthesis, glucose and oxygen gas are the reagents of CO2 and H2O

  • Not only do trees remove CO2 but they produce O2 in order for life to be sustainable

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse Effect

  • Green house effect is introduced by trapping by gases in the atmosphere of radiation emitted by earth

  • Energy from the sun warms the Earth, therefore sustaining life on earth

What happens to radiation that sum emits

What happens to radiation that sum emits?

  • Amount of energy radiated by a body depends on its surface area A, absolute temperature T and the properties of the surface:

    P = eδAT4

    δ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant and equals

    5.67 * 10^-8 Wm^-2K^-4

    e is the emissivity of the surface

    (varies from 0 – 1)

Global warming

Black Body

  • The special case from the equation P = eδAT4, where the emissivity surface e is 1 is known as black body

  • Black body represents a perfect emitter

  • Darker Surfaces have values of e closer to 1

The Sum maybe considered as a perfect emitter.

General phenomena

General Phenomena

  • Black surfaces, absorb better than light surface

    • We wear dark colored clothes in the winter to absorb radiation from the sun

  • Light surfaces are good reflectors

    • We wear light coloured clothes in the summer



  • Ratio of the power of radiation reflected or scattered from the body to the total power incident on the body

  • Snow has a high albedo (0.85) meaning that snow reflects most of the suns radiation whereas charcoal has a low albedo (0.04 meaning that it absorbs most of the suns radiation

  • Average albedo for earth is o.3 (depends on the surface)

Energy Balance

  • Earth has constant temperature and behaves as black body

  • Energy input into earth must equal energy output by the earth

Energy balance on earth

Energy Balance on Earth

The greenhouse effect

The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect1

The Greenhouse Effect

  • Solar radiation reaching earth is mainly radiation in visible spectrum

  • 30% of this radiation is reflected back into space

    • Rest arrives at earth’s atmosphere and surface

      • Warm them both

  • Earth’s surface radiates back as all warm bodies do

The greenhouse effect cont d

The Greenhouse Effect (cont'd)

  • Infrared radiation is strongly absorbed by various gases in the atmosphere

    • These are called Greenhouse gases

  • This radiation is reradiated by the gases in all directions

    • This means that some of this goes back to the earth’s surface, making it even warmer

  • If it weren’t for the greenhouse gases, all radiation would go back into space and earth would have temperatures 32K less than now

Global warming

Absorbed ir radiation reradiated back to earth


Radiated back into space



Greenhouse effect1

Greenhouse Effect

Sources of greenhouse gases

Sources of Greenhouse Gases

  • Water Vapor  

    • Evaporation

  • Carbon Dioxide  

    • Forest fires, volcanic eruptions

  • Methane

    • Wetlands, oceans, lakes and rivers

  • Nitrous Oxide

    • Forest, ocean, soil and grassland

Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases

Anthropogenic Sources of Greenhouse Gases

  • Water Vapour

    • None

  • Carbon Dioxide  

    • Burning fossil fuels in power plants and cars

  • Methane

    • Flooded rice fields, farm animals, termites, processing of coal, natural gas and oil, and burning biomass

  • Nitrous Oxide

    • Burning fossil fuel, manufacturing cement, fertilizers, deforestation



  • Greenhouse effect is a natural consequence

  • More warming can harm the earth

  • Increase in gas quantities are due to human activities

  • Planting trees can absorb the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  • Methane is destroyed in the lower atmosphere by chemical reactions involving hydroxyl radicals

  • Nitrous oxide is destroyed by photochemical reactions

Surface heat capacity

Surface Heat Capacity

  • Energy required to increase the temperature of 1 meter squared of the surface by 1 K

  • Amount of thermal energy is given by

    • Q = ACsT

      • Where A is the area

      • Cs is the surface heat capacity

      • T is the increase in its temperature

Increase in concentration of greenhouse gases leads to global warming.

Effects of global warming

Effects of Global Warming

1) Diseases are spread.

2) Disruption of the ecosystems.

3) Water temperature increases. 

4) Increased chances of droughts and heat waves.

5) Economic downturn.

6) The polar ice caps melt.

7) Changes in biodiversity.

Spread of diseases

Spread of Diseases

  • Malaria has spread among Peru

  • 40 years ago malaria was eradicated from Peru; but now, due to global warming and deforestation, the disease has spread with more than 64,000 cases 

  • The unseasonal rain leaves puddles containing larvae 

  • Logging and deforestation also cause mosquitoes and larvae to spread because the trees which house these insects are cut down then the logs are moved to other areas in which the disease is taken along with it, therefore affecting that area as well

  • This way, the disease is slowly and unexpectedly spread by us humans alone

Mosquitoes possibly carrying diseases such as the dengue fever malaria and the west nile virus

Mosquitoes possibly carrying diseases such as the Dengue Fever, Malaria and the West Nile Virus.

Disruption of the ecosystems

Disruption of the Ecosystems

Due to the rise in temperatures:

  • Species of plants and animals are becoming extinct due to the water wiping out their habitat and food source

    • The Adélie penguins in Antarctica have decreased in         breeding pairs from 32,000 to 11,000 in the past 30          years    

    • Polar bears have less ice to fish and live on, they are        therefore decreasing drastically in numbers

  • Species are increasing in numbers 

    • In Alaska, spruce bark beetles have increased in number over the past 20 years and in turn, they've eaten up 4 million acres of spruce trees

Coral bleaching is one of the effects of global warming on ecosystems

Coral bleaching is one of the effects of global warming on ecosystems. 

Sea level

Sea Level

  • Sea level is always varying

  • Climate change affects sea level

  • Changes in sea level affect the amount of water that can evaporate and amount of thermal energy that can be exchanged with the atmosphere

  • Temperature of the earth’s surface affects the sea level

Water temperature increases

Water Temperature Increases

  • As ocean water temperature increases, so does the number of natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis) 

  • We've seen this happen in the past decade when:

    • Hurricane Ivan struck in Florida in 2004 producing a stunning 117 tornadoes over three days

    • Indonesia was also struck by a tsunami later on in 2004, produced by a massive 9.1 magnitude earthquake

    • Hurricane Katrina wreaked havoc in 2005 when it struck along the Gulf Coast

  • These natural disasters due to global warming have become and soon will be known as global disasters

Destruction by a hurricane literally wiping out peoples homes

Destruction by a hurricane. Literally wiping out peoples homes.

Temperature pattern

Temperature Pattern

Pattern is similar to Carbon pattern

Average global temperatures

Average  Global Temperatures

Increased chances of drought and heat waves

Increased Chances of Drought and Heat Waves

  • Although many areas of the world will be suffering from floods due to global warming, others such as Western USA, Middle East, Central Asia, Australia, Africa will be suffering from a scarcity of water and massive heat waves

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report claims droughts have been more prominent in the past 25 years

  • Irrigation water in California is expected to dry up leaving 60,000 people unemployed and 1 million acres of farmland unused

Huge violent dust cloud in southern africa

Huge, violent dust cloud in Southern Africa.

Economic downturn

Economic Downturn

  • Due to the increase in many natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis, there will also be a huge increase in the money spent to redevelop the affected areas

  • Also, as more diseases spread throughout nations, they will need more money to treat the infected people as well as finding a cure and stop the diseases from becoming a pandemic

  • Furthermore, droughts are a huge economic blow to farmers 

    • In California, the Central Valley produces over half of the US' fruits, vegetables and nuts. Due to the drought, the number one farming area in the nation is drying up, which could cause a deficit of over $36 billion per year. 

Melting of ice

Melting of Ice

  • Temperature is higher, then ice will melt

    • Land ice melting will cause sea level increase

    • Sea ice melting will not cause sea level increase

  • Lands could be filled with water, if the sea level is too high (especially coastal areas)

Polar ice caps melt

Polar Ice Caps Melt

  • If global warming continues at its alarming rate, the polar ice caps will continue to melt

    • By the end of the century, they are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches and if the poles continued to melt, it could add 4-8 inches

    • National Snow and Ice Data Center declared if all the ice caps, glaciers and snow (5,773,000 cubic miles of water) melted today, the sea level would rise by 230 feet

  • By the ice caps melting, all the fresh water entering the oceans would desalinate the water which would ruin the global ecosystem, ocean currents and global temperatures 

  • Moreover, as temperatures rise, the geography of the land will change causing endangerment to many species of animals in which only the adaptable will survive

Global warming

Polar Bear stranded on a small piece of a glacier. This shows us as their habitat melts away, slowly ours will too.

Polar ice caps melt continued

Polar Ice Caps Melt (continued)

  • Due to the ice caps melting, there is less area for the sun to reflect light off back into space - cooling the Earth further. But, as the ice caps decrease in size, the sun rays will be forced to hit the dark ocean which would instead trap the heat and warm the Earth instead. 

  • In Peru, the Quelccaya ice cap (containing fresh drinking water) will be gone by 2100 if it continue to melt at its current rate. This will leave thousands of people without water and electricity. 

Global warming

Glacier in Patagonia, Argentina 1928 (top). Glacier in Patagonia, Argentina 2004 (bottom). 76 years of climate change.



  • Biological diversity is the variety of life on Earth and is commonly referred to as biodiversity.

  • The numerous species of plants, animals, and the vast diversity of genes in these species along with the many different ecosystems are all part of our Earth's biodiversity.

The importance of biodiversity

The Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity

        -all species have an important role

  • more plant species means more variety of crops

  • natural barriers against natural disasters

  • resistance against invasive species

  • pollination of plants

  • regulation of climate

  • nutrient and water recycling

  • pollution control

Loss of biodiversity risks humans

Loss of Biodiversity Risks Humans

Change in ecosystems results in a major change in the food chain humans depend on.

  • water sources may change, recede or disappear

  • some species may mutate or become extinct

  • medicines will be harder to create since the plants they derive from may reduce or disappear

  • choices will be limited for necessities such as food

    • less diversity in plants means less variety in crops/food for us to eat

Change in biodiversity

Change in Biodiversity

Changes in biodiversity can also affect other aspects of human well-being

  • Many cultures rely on ecosystems for their spiritual, aesthetic, recreational and religious components

  • In developing countries, more than half of the energy is fueled from wood

  • Communities will experience more natural disasters

    • ie. Loss of coral reefs and mangroves as natural buffers against coastal floods and storms

Changes in biodiversity will alter the appearance of coral reefs

Changes in biodiversity will alter the appearance of coral reefs.

Reducing global warming

Reducing Global Warming

  • Use fuel efficient cars

  • Increase efficiency of coal-burning power plants

  • Carbon sinks

  • Nuclear power

  • Stop deforestation

  • Being energy conscious

Kyoto protocol and the ipcc

Kyoto Protocol and the IPCC

  • Cutting down greenhouse gas emissions was reached in 1997 in Japan

    • Industries agreed to reduce their emissions by 5.2%

    • Endorsed 160 countries

    • India and China are not bound by IPCC

  • IPCC was created in 1988 and conducted research on scientific and socio-economical aspects of Earth

Simple things you can do to reduce your carbon footprint

Simple Things you can do to Reduce your Carbon Footprint

- Consider using your bike, feet, or mass transportation whenever possible

- Reduce, Reuse and Recycle!

-Reduce the need to copy and print. When you need to, copy and print on both sides of the paper

- Turn off appliances and lights when not in use

- Use vegetable-based and biodegradable cleaning products

Works cited

Works Cited

  • Gay K. 1992. Global Garbage: Exporting Trash and Toxic Waste. United States: Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Dat. 144 p.

  • Kruus P, Demmer M, McCaw K. 1991. Chemicals in the Environment. Morin Heights,Quebec, Canada: Polyscience Publications inc. 151 p.

  • Smyth A, Wheater C. 1990. Here Health: The Green Guide. Hertfordshire, England: Argus Books. 140 p.

  • U.S.E.P.A. . 2010 [cited 2010 Dec 29].Nitrous Oxides. [Internet]. United States: Environmental Protection Agency. Available from:

  • Simmons. [cited 2010 Dec 30]. 5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming. [Internet]. Environmental Graffiti. Available from: 

  • 2010. [cited 2010 Dec 30]. Effects of Global Warming. [Internet]. National Geographic Society. Available from: 

Works cited cont

Works Cited (cont.)

  • 2009 March 1. [cited 2010 Dec 30]. Heat waves and extreme drought will increase with climate change. [internet]. Optimum Population Trust News Watch. Available from:

  • Tsokos, K. A. Physics for the IB Diploma. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

  • US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 02 Jan. 2011. <>.

  •  "Nuclear Energy." University of Michigan. Web. 02 Jan. 2011. <>.

  • "Greenhouse Gas." Encyclopedia of Earth. Web. 02 Jan. 2011. <>.

Works cited continued

Works Cited (continued)

  • "What Global Warming Is and How Its Affecting Our Enivornment." Global Warming & Animals. Web. 02 Jan. 2011. <>.

  • Global Warming: Early Warning Signs. Web. 02 Jan. 2011. <>.

  • Pictures courtesy of:



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