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Multi-View Sketching & Projection. Aerospace Practicum Spring 2007. Created by: P.M. Larochelle. Projections. Two main types of projections: parallel & perspective . Every drawing/projection involves the spatial relationship of the these four elements: Station Point or Observer’s Eye

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Multi-View Sketching & Projection

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Multi view sketching projection

Multi-View Sketching & Projection

Aerospace Practicum

Spring 2007

Created by:

P.M. Larochelle


Projections

Projections

  • Two main types of projections: parallel & perspective.

  • Every drawing/projection involves the spatial relationship of the these four elements:

    • Station Point or Observer’s Eye

    • Object

    • Plane of Projection

    • Projectors or Visual Rays or Lines of Sight


Perspective projections

Perspective Projections


Parallel projections

Parallel Projections


Classification of projections

Classification of Projections


Object views

Object Views

  • To provide a clear and complete description of the shape and size of an object a number of views, systematically arranged, are used. This system of object representation is called multi-view projection.

  • Multi-view projection is necessary since all objects are 3-D and all drawings are 2-D. One 2-D drawing is insufficient to clearly and completely define an object.


Object views1

Object Views

  • The Front View is an orthographic parallel projection.


Object views2

Object Views

  • There are six orthogonal

    directions from which a

    part may be viewed.


Object views3

Object Views

  • The observer can move around the part to “see” the six views.


Object views4

Object Views

  • The observer can rotate the part to “see” the six views.


Object views the glass box

Object Views: The Glass Box


The six standard views

The Six Standard Views

  • The standard arrangement

    of the views is critical to clearly

    describing the object:

    • Top, front, and bottom

      views align vertically

    • Rear, left, front, and right

      views align horizontally


Transferring dimensions

Transferring Dimensions

  • The height, width, and depth of the object must correspond point-for-point.


Transferring dimensions1

Transferring Dimensions

  • The height, width, and depth of the object must correspond point-for-point.


Transferring dimensions2

Transferring Dimensions

  • The transfer of dimensions can be used to project a 3rd view.


Transferring dimensions3

Transferring Dimensions

  • The transfer of dimensions can be used to project a 3rd view.


Transferring dimensions4

Transferring Dimensions

  • The transfer of dimensions can be used to project a 3rd view.


Necessary views

Necessary Views

  • A sketch or drawing should only contain the views needed to clearly and completely describe the object.

  • The Three Regular

    (Primary) Views are

    the top, front, and

    right-side views.

    Use these regular views

    first to define the object.


Choosing the necessary views

Choosing the Necessary Views

  • Orient the object so that the front view shows the features of interest most clearly

  • Chose the front view such that it has a large number of normal surfaces

  • Show the object in the usual or operating orientation

  • Next, show the right-side and/or top views unless other views are better(fewer hidden lines)

  • Show only the views need to fully define the object’s geometry

  • See Step-by-Step5.9 & Hands-On 5.6 pg. 144.


Elements of a projection points

Elements of a Projection: points

  • A corner or point is associated with the common intersection of 3 or more surfaces on the object. In a sketch a point can represent either of two features on the object:

    • a vertex

    • the point view of an edge (e.g. when two vertices are lined up one behind the other).


Elements of a projection lines

Elements of a Projection: lines

  • A straight visible or hidden line in a sketch has 3 possible meanings:

    • an edge(intersection) between 2 surfaces

    • the edge view of a surface

    • the limiting element of a curved surface.


Elements of a projection hidden lines

Elements of a Projection: hidden lines

  • Dashed hidden lines are used to represent features that would be hidden behind other surfaces.

  • Remember to choose views that show features with visible lines when possible then use hidden lines to make the drawing clear.


Elements of a projection hidden lines1

Elements of a Projection: hidden lines

  • Use dashes 1/8” long with 1/16” long gaps.

  • Should intersect neatly except where a line of a different line type would appear to be extended.

  • Should “jump” visible lines that they cross

  • Draw closely spaced parallel hidden lines with the staggered dashes

  • See Step-by-Step 5.5 pg. 132 for sketching guidelines


Hidden lines

Hidden Lines:

Hidden lines should

join neatly with visible

lines except when it

causes a visible line

to be extended. When

two different lines join

to form a single line,

leave a gap on the less

important line.

Hidden lines should

join neatly to form “T”

or “L” shaped inter-

sections.

Hidden lines should

jump visible lines that

they do not intersect.

It is permissible for a

hidden line to cross a

visible line.


Hidden lines1

Hidden Lines:

Stagger the dashes on closely spaced parallel hidden lines.

Hidden line dashes should intersect neatly to from clear corners, as in the bottom of this drilled hole.

Intersecting hidden lines should form neat corners, as in this countersunk hole.


Hidden lines2

Hidden Lines:

Curved hidden lines should not extend a visible curve in the same direction. Leave a gap on the hidden line so that you can easily see where the visible line ends.

Curved hidden lines dashes should extend to the point of tangency. Don’t end with a gap at the point of tangency. It makes it hard to see the location.


Elements of a projection fillets rounds

Elements of a Projection: fillets & rounds

  • Sharp corners are almost always to be avoided when designing a part.

    • A fillet is a rounded interior corner.

    • A round is a rounded exterior corner.


Center lines

Center Lines:

  • Center lines are used to indicate symmetrical axes of objects or features, bolt circles, and paths of motion.

  • Centerlines are useful in dimensioning as the are used to locate the center of the feature.

  • Centerlines are not needed on fillets, rounds, or other self-locating features.


Center lines1

Center Lines:


In class practice problem

In-Class Practice Problem

  • Draw a three-view drawing of the following object


Extra problems

Extra Problems:

  • Problem #18 in Figure 5.61 on page 152.


Extra problems1

Extra Problems:

  • Problem #1 in Figure 5.64 on page 154.


References

References

  • Chapter 5 of Modern Graphics Communication by Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill, Dygdon, Novak, and Lockhard, 3rd edition. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

  • Technical Drawing by Giesecke, Mitchell, Spencer, Hill, Dygdon, and Novak, 9th edition. Macmillan, 1991.


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