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Refraction of Light –Part 2. Internal Reflection. When light travels from a slow medium to a fast medium, the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence. When the angle of refraction should be 90 o or greater, there is total internal reflection.

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internal reflection
Internal Reflection
  • When light travels from a slow medium to a fast medium, the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence.
  • When the angle of refraction should be 90o or greater, there is total internal reflection.
  • The incident angle which predicts a 90o refraction angle is called the critical angle.
  • Applet
critical angle
Critical Angle
  • n1sin qc = n2 sin 90o
  • n1sin qc = n2
  • sin qc = n2 / n1
  • qc = sin-1(n2 / n1)
  • For water: qc = 48o
  • The higher the index of refraction the lower qc
internal reflection1
Internal Reflection
  • All rays reflect internally, but the top three rays reflect only a small percentage internally; most energy leaves the prism.
  • The fourth and fifth rays are reflected 100 % internally
internal reflection in diamond
Internal Reflection in Diamond
  • The critical angle fordiamond in air is24.5 o.
  • Any ray which strikes the inside surface at an angle greater than 24.5o will be totally internally reflected.
rainbow formation
Rainbow Formation
  • An observer seesred light comingfrom droplets ofwater higher inthe sky.
  • Droplets of waterlower in the skysend violet lightto the eye.
alexander s dark band
Alexander’s Dark Band
  • Sky is light inside primary rainbow
  • Dark between primary and secondary bows
  • Light beyond the secondary rainbow
  • Dark region between is called Alexander’s Dark Band
22 o halo
22o Halo
  • A halo is a ring of light surrounding the sun or moon.
  • Most halos appear as bright white rings but in some instances, the dispersion of light as it passes through ice crystals found in upper level cirrus clouds can cause a halo to have color.

Diameter less than 20.5 micrometers

Randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals

sundogs
Sundogs
  • Sundogs or parhelia on right and left of sun

Flat faces horizontally oriented

Hexagonal ice crystals

Diameter greater than 30 micrometers

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