Refraction of light part 2
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Refraction of Light –Part 2. Internal Reflection. When light travels from a slow medium to a fast medium, the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence. When the angle of refraction should be 90 o or greater, there is total internal reflection.

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Refraction of Light –Part 2

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Refraction of light part 2

Refraction of Light –Part 2


Internal reflection

Internal Reflection

  • When light travels from a slow medium to a fast medium, the angle of refraction is larger than the angle of incidence.

  • When the angle of refraction should be 90o or greater, there is total internal reflection.

  • The incident angle which predicts a 90o refraction angle is called the critical angle.

  • Applet


Critical angle

Critical Angle

  • n1sin qc = n2 sin 90o

  • n1sin qc = n2

  • sin qc = n2 / n1

  • qc = sin-1(n2 / n1)

  • For water: qc = 48o

  • The higher the index of refraction the lower qc


Fish eye view

Fish Eye View


View of world above applet

View of World AboveApplet


Bird fish

Bird & Fish


Internal reflection1

Internal Reflection

  • All rays reflect internally, but the top three rays reflect only a small percentage internally; most energy leaves the prism.

  • The fourth and fifth rays are reflected 100 % internally


Internal reflection in prisms

Internal Reflection in Prisms


Internal reflection in diamond

Internal Reflection in Diamond

  • The critical angle fordiamond in air is24.5 o.

  • Any ray which strikes the inside surface at an angle greater than 24.5o will be totally internally reflected.


Fiber optics

Fiber Optics


Fiber optics1

Fiber Optics


Dispersion blue bends best

DispersionBlue Bends Best


Different frequencies different indices of refraction

Different FrequenciesDifferent Indices of Refraction


Refractive index function of wavelength

Refractive IndexFunction of Wavelength


Table of indices

Table of Indices


Refraction reflection in a raindrop

Refraction & Reflectionin a Raindrop


Rainbow formation

Rainbow Formation

  • An observer seesred light comingfrom droplets ofwater higher inthe sky.

  • Droplets of waterlower in the skysend violet lightto the eye.


Circular rainbow

Circular Rainbow


Double rainbow picture

Double Rainbow Picture


Double rainbow picture1

Double Rainbow Picture


Rainbow arch

Rainbow Arch


Rainbow zoom

Rainbow Zoom


Double rainbow

Double Rainbow


Double rainbow diagrams

Double Rainbow Diagrams


Double rainbow diagram

Double Rainbow Diagram


Alexander s dark band

Alexander’s Dark Band

  • Sky is light inside primary rainbow

  • Dark between primary and secondary bows

  • Light beyond the secondary rainbow

  • Dark region between is called Alexander’s Dark Band


22 o halo

22o Halo

  • A halo is a ring of light surrounding the sun or moon.

  • Most halos appear as bright white rings but in some instances, the dispersion of light as it passes through ice crystals found in upper level cirrus clouds can cause a halo to have color.

Diameter less than 20.5 micrometers

Randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals


Sundogs

Sundogs

  • Sundogs or parhelia on right and left of sun

Flat faces horizontally oriented

Hexagonal ice crystals

Diameter greater than 30 micrometers


Sundog

Sundog


Sundog1

Sundog


Sundog2

Sundog


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