Nomenclature isomers and molecule shapes
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Nomenclature, Isomers and Molecule Shapes. Nomenclature. ...How many carbons are there in the chain? ...What is the functional group? ...Where is the functional group? Count from the end which gives you the lowest number for the position of the functional group.

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Nomenclature
Nomenclature...

  • ...How many carbons are there in the chain?

  • ...What is the functional group?

  • ...Where is the functional group?

  • Count from the end which gives you the lowest number for the position of the functional group.


Functional groups

No functional group = alkane.

Double bond = alkene.

Functional Groups...


Chain isomers
Chain Isomers

C – C – C – C --- butane.

C – C – C --- methyl-propane.

|

C

C –C – C – C – C ---pentane. C

|

C – C – C – C ---methyl-butane. C – C – C ---dimethyl-propane

| |

C C


Positional isomers
Positional Isomers

C – C – C – C – C --- pentan-3-ol

|

OH

C – C – C – C – C ---pentan-1-ol

|

OH

C – C – C --- 1-bromopropane

|

Br

C – C – C --- 2-bromopropane

|

Br

Alcohol = ol.


Shapes of molecules

@

|

0

/ \

@ @

Three bonding pairs.

Trigonal Planar.

120 degree bond angle.

Shapes of Molecules

@ – @ – @

Two bonding pairs.

Linear.

180 degree bond angle.

@

|

@

/ \

@ @

Four bonding pairs.

Tetrahedral.

109.5 degree bond angle.

@

|

@ – @

|

@

Five bonding pairs.

Trigonal bipyramidal.

90 and 120 degree bond angles.

@

@

@


Shapes of molecules cont
Shapes of Molecules cont.

@

|

@

|

@

Six bonding pairs.

Octahedral.

90 degree bond angle.

@

@

@

@

LP-LP repulsion > LP-BP repulsion > BP-BP repulsion.


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